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Jainism in Buddhist Literature
                                                                By Dr. Hiralal Jain

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Jaina Monachism

After completing the practice of Anuvratas and Pratimas, a house-holder seeks permission from his relatives to renounce completely mundane affairs and become a Jaina monk. Then after worshipping panca Paramesthins (Arhanta, Siddha, Acarya Upadhyaya, and Sadhu) he requests the Ganin to admit him into his Order. Being accepted by the Ganin, he pulls out his hair and becomes a completely naked ascetic according to the Digambara tradition.

There were at first no caste restrictions to be a Jaina monk, but later on Brahmana, Ksatriya, and vaisys are said to have been preferred.42 Robbers, sick prsons, slaves, blinds, debtors, etc. are not to be admitted into the Order.43

The new monk makes gradual progress in monkhood and attains the position of Sthavira, Upadhyaya Acarya, Ganadhara. and pravartaka.44 There are three Monastic Units which are recognized by the Jainas:-

(i) Gana consists of at least three monks and maximum a thousand.45 It is a unit made up of many kulas (parasparasa-peksanekakulasamudayah).46

(ii) Kula forms the Gana (ganah kulasamudayah)47.

(iii) Gaccha consists of seven monks (saptapurusako gacchah)48

It is under a particular Acarya (Guruparivarah.)49 The entire Order consists of monks, nuns, laymen, and women, and is called Sangha. If one breaks any rules or regulations, he should observe Prayascittas like Alocana, Pratikramana, Ubhaya, Viveka, Vyutsarga, Tapa, Cheda, Parihara, and Upasthapana.50 During the rainy season a Jaina ascetic should stop his thouring and abstai from walking on green grass or water. One should move about only during the day taking proper care not to tread on any living creature (samyak iriya samiti).51

Complete nakedness (jahajaya) is one of the essentials of Jaina (Digambara) monkhood.52 He should have 27 qualities Pranalipatavirmana etc.53 Among the requisites he is permitted to have a broom made of peacock feathers and a waterpot made of wood for using after answering calls of nature. He sleeps either on the bare ground or on a plank of wood. He never uses blankets and the like, even during the cold season. He is not supposed even to touch money.

A Jaina ascetic takes his meal and water once a day between about 9 A. M. and 18 Noon. He eats out of his own palms in a standing position. The concept behind this rule is to abstain from all botherations and mundane affairs. The food should be pure in nine ways (navakoti-parisuddham).45 The faults pertaining to the improper begging of food are generally grouped into four, viz. Udgama (preparation of food), Utpadana (the ways of adopting food), Esana (the method of accepting food), and Paribhoga (way of eating is to gain physical strength adequate for the purpose of Performing religious duties.

The fundamentals of moral discipline consist of the twenty-eight Mulagunas, the Uttaragunas, five-fold Acaras, the twelve Anupreksas or reflections, the twelve-fold penance or Tapas, ten kinds of Vaiyavrtya, and the twentytwo kinds of Parisaha. They are as follows: 

The twenty-eight Mulgunas:

(1) Panca Mahavratas : total abstention from five great sins, i.e. Himsa (violence), Asatya (telling a lie), Steya (theft), Abrahma (sexual intercourse), and Parigraha (wordly attachment).

(2) Panca Samitis :five religious observances, viz. (i) Iriya or walking with proper care looking 3 1/2 yards ahead, (ii) Bhasa or speaking with proper care, (iii) Esana, or taking only pure food which was not specially prepared for him, (iv) Adananiksepana or proper care in lifting and laving, and (v) pratisthapana or proper care in excerting.

(3) sadivasyakas : five daily duties, viz. (i) Samayika or equanimity of soul, (ii) Vandana or saluting of Tirthankaras images in the temples. (iii) Stuti, praising the qualities of holy beings. (iv) Pratikramana or repentence of faults, (v) Svadhyaya or reading the scriptures, and (vi) Kayotsarga or giving up attachment to the body and practising contemplation of the self.

(4) pancendriyanirodha or restraint of five senses.

(5) pancacara : five kinds of acaras, viz. Darsanacara or to induce strong and steady faith, (ii) Jnanacara or to increase knowledge, (iii) Caritracara or to improve one's daily life, (iv) Tapacara, and (v) Viryacara, to increase the power of one's inner self.

(6) Triguptis : the three-fold restraint of mind, body and speech.

Besides, a monk is said to have seven other duties, viz. (i) Kesaluncana or pulling the hair with one's own hands, (ii) Acelakatva, or Nakedn ss, (iii) Asnanatva, or not to bathe, (iv) Bhusayanatva, or sleeping on the ground, (v) Ekabhukti or taking only a little food once a day, (vi) Adantadhavanatva, or not applying a brush to the teeth, and (vii) Taking food in a standing posture, and only in the hollow of the folded hands.

A monk, as we have already referred to in the last chapter, is supposed to meditate on the twelve Anvpreksas or Bhavanas (reflections) and observe the austerities (tapas and Parisahas). 

References to Jaina Monachism in Pali Literature

Pali, as well as Budhist Sanskrit, literature refers to Nigantha Nataputta as the head and teacher of a very large Order (sanghi ceva gani ca ganacariyo ca), well known (nata), famous (yasassi), the founder of a sect (titthakara).57

Here Sanghi, Gani, and Ganacariyo indicate the stages of gradual development in Jaina hierarchy. The Sadhu or Nigantha is mentioned as the ordinary category of monks. Such monks (seha or antevasin) are of four types in Jaina literature, and their main duties are to practise the monastic conduct and study. Acarya is superior to Upadhyaya and is supposed to be head of a small group of monks. The Avasyakaniryukti mentions the qualities of a Acarya viz. that he should possess the five-fold conduct (acara) knowledge (jnana), faith (darsana), good behaviour (caritra), penance (tapa), and fortitude (virya). Gani, a head of a gana, is separated from Acarya, but his duties are not much different. He is said to be equipped with eightfold ganisampada, viz. Acara, Sruta, Sarira, Vacana, Mati, Prayoga, and Sangraha.58 Ganadhara is a chief disciple of Tirthankar. The Tirthankara karma is obtained by meditation of Darsanavisuddhi (purity or right belief), Vinayasampannata (reverence for means of liberation and for those who follows them). Silavratesvanaticara (faultless observance of the five vows, and fault-less subdual of the passions), Abhiksnajnanopayoga (cease-less pursuit of right knowledge), Samvega (perpetual apprehension of mundane miseries), Saktitastyaga (giving up according to one's capacity) Sadhusamadhi (protecting and reassuring the saints or removing their troubles), Vaiyavrttya-karana (serving the meritorious), Arhadbhakti (devotion to arhats or omniscients), Acaryabhakti (devotion to Acaryas), Bahusrutabhakti (devotion to Upadhyaya), Pravacanabhakti (devotion to scripture), Avasyakaparihani (not neglecting one's duties), Margaprabhavana (propagation of the path of liberation), and Pravacanavatsalatva (tender affection for one's brothers on the path of liberation).59 

Church Units

The monks were grouped in various Units under their respective Heads. The whole congregation of monks, nuns, laymen, and lay-women is called Sangh. Gana, Kula, and Gaccha were the main Units. Nigantha Nataputta is said to be a head and a teacher of such Sangha and Gana (Sanghi ceva gani ca ganacariyo ca).60 The gana was the largest unit made up of many kulas (paraspararasanakakulasamudayah).61 The maximum number of the members of a Gana is said to be a thousand (utkrstah Purupusapramanam saharrbyaptharktvam.62 It was headed by Ganadhara or Tirthankara.63 

Vassavasa or stay in rainy season

During the rainy season a Jaina ascetic is suposed to stop his touring. The rule was so popular that the people criticise the Buddhist monks for not adhering to it at the beginning, "How can these recluses, Sakyaputtiyas, walk on tour during the cold weather and hot weather and rain trampling down the crops and grasses, injuring life that is one-facultied and bringing many small creatures to destruction? Shall it be that these members of other sects, whose rules are badly kept, cling to and prepare a rains-residence, shall it be that birds having made their nests in the tree-tops, cling to a proper rains-residence, which these recluses trample on walking."64 Then the Buddha prescribed the rules pertaining to the observance of indoor residence in the rainy sesaon.

Here the word annatitthiya refers to the heretical teachers. We are not aware of this rule in their doctrines, except in those of Nigantha Nataputta. The Mulacara Mentions that a Jaina monk should stop touring in the rainy season and abstain from causing injury to vegetable beings which grow profusely during this time.


Phalapupphabiyaghadam na karenti muni na karenti.

Pudhaviyasamarambham jalapavanaggitasanamarambham.

Na karenti na karenti ya karentam nanumodanti.65

The vassavasa in Jainism66 as well as Buddhism67 commences on the full-moon day of Asadha and ends on the fullmoon day of Kartika. The Thananga permits the monks to go to another place under certain circumastences.68. 

Requisit es

A Jaina monk has no attachment to the world. Nakedness or acelakatva is considered one of the essential of monkhood (lingkappa).69 Pali literature refers to Jaina ascetics as Niganthas, for they claimed to be free from all bonds (amhakam ganthanakileso palibujjhankileso natthi, Kilesaganthirahitaayam ti evam vaditaya laddhnamavasena Nigantho).70

Cloth and other requisities are considered Parigraha (possession) which is an obstacle to the attainment of salvation. Acarya Kundakunda says: "If (you were to say) it is (found) stated in certain texts that monk accepts a piece of clothing and possesses a pot, (we are to ask) how can be (with these) be independent and without activities involving preliminary sins? If he accepts a piece of clothing, gourdbowl or anything else, necessarily there is involved harm to living beings, and there is disturbance in mind.71 Somadeva also puts forth the same view.72 According to Digambaras, no body can attain complete emancipation from karmas without being naked.

The Buddha was completely against nakedness (Acelakatva). He criticised this rule along with others on several occasions. In Pali literature the word Acela is used quite loosely and referred to any naked ascetic rather than a member of any single organised religious sect.73 In the Vinaya74 both Acelaka and Ajivika are used synonymously. In the Majjhima Nikaya, the Buddha is said to have followed the Acelakatva before he had attained Buddhahood. But in the Dhammapadatthakatha, a person with an unsettled mind is compared to one who starts as an Acelaka, Nigantha and Tapasa.75

In the same work an incident is referred to where he Niganthas wearing a piece of cloth are considered better than those who are completely unclothed (Acelakas). The reason given for wearing a garment was the prevention of dust and dirt falling into their alms-dishes. For even dust and comprise beings endowed with life76. This reference appears to the Svetambara sect of Jainas which apparently had come into existence at the time of Buddhaghosa.

The same work mentions another incident which happened during the marriage of Visakha, a lay-woman who was a follower of Buddhism. It is said there that her father-in-law Migara, follower of Jainism, escorted the naked ascetics (perhaps Jainas) into his houe for a meal, and called visakha to pay homage to them. As she entered the hall where the naked ascetics were eating and looked at them, she said "Men like these are totally bereft of a sense of modesty and fear of mortal sin and have no right to the title of Arhant. Why did my father-in-law send for mee77?

Another story78 gives a dialogus between Sirigutta and Garhadinna, the followers of Buddha and the Nigantha Nataputta. Garahadinna says to Sirigutta that the Niganthas (Jaina monks)  are omniscient. They know the past, present and the future. Afterwards Sirigutta, a follower of the Buddha, trys to test this boast of the naked ascetics. He prepared a ditch to be dug between two houses. ON invitation, when the Niganthas came, they fell into the pit and their bodies were covered with mud etc. Then it is said that he had them beaten with sticks and brought humiliation upon them. In the end it was proved that Buddhist monks were ominiscient for they could avoid the pit which was secretly dug for them too. One factor is important here, that is, the Jaina monks who figure in this story are only ordinary monks and Nigantha Nataputta is not connected with the incident at all.

All these references to Acelakas and Niganthas indicate that the Buddha and his followers were not only opposed to nakedness, but they also ridiculed it. On the other hand, it is clear that Acelakatva or nakedness was one of the essentials of Jaina monkhood. 

Ascetic Practices

Some ascetic pratices which were prevalent at that time among Samanas and Brahmanas are referred to by the name of Acela Kassapa79. The same practices are said to have been practised by the Buddha himself before he attained enlightenment80. The Ajivikas are also said to have followed them91. These practices are as follows:

(1) He goes naked (acelako hoti).

(2) He is of loose habits (performing his bodily functions, and eating food in a standing posture, not crouching down, or sitting down, as well-bred people do. (muttacaro).

(3) He licks his hands clean (after eating, instead of washing them, as others do)-(hatthapalekhano).

(4) When on his rounds for alms, if politely requested to stop nearer, or to wait a moment, he passes solidly on (na ehi bhaddantiko na tittha bhaddantiko).

(5) He refuses to accept food brought to him (nabhihatam)

(6) He refuses to accept food if prepared especially for him (na uddissakatam).

(7) He refuses to accept any invitation (na nimantanam sadiyati).

(8) He will not accept food straight from the mouth of a pot or pan (so na kumbhimukha patigganhati, na kalopimukha patigganhati).

(9) He will not accept food placed within the threshold (na elakamantaram).

(10) Nor among the sticks (na dandamantaram).

(11) Nor among the pestles (na musalamantaram).

(12) Nor when two persons are eating (na dvinnam bunjamanam).

(13) Nor from a pregnant woman (na gabbhaniya).

(14) Nor from one giving suck (na payamanaya).

(15) Nor from one in intercourse with a man (na purisantaragataya).

(16) He will not accept food collected (na sankattisu).

(17) Nor accept food where a dog is standing (na yattha sa upatthito hoti).

(18) Nor where flies are swarming (na yattha makkhika sandasandacarini).

(19) Nor accept fish, nor meat, nor drink, nor intoxicants, nor gruel (na maccham, na thusodkam pivati).

(20) He is one-houser accepting one mouthful or a two-houser accepting two-mouthfuls or a seven-houser accepting seven mouthfuls (so ekagariko va hoti ekalopiko va hoti dvalopiko, sattagariko va hoti sattalopiko).

(21) He keeps himself going on alms given by only one or only two, or so on, up to seven (ekissapi dattiya yapeti, dvihi pi dattihi yapeti, sattahi pi dattihi yapeti).

(22) He takes food only once a day, or once every two days, or so on upto only seven days. Thus does he dwell observing the practice of taking food according to rule, at regular intervals, upto even half a month. (ekahikam pi aharm ahareti, dvihikam pi aharam ahareti, sattihikam pi aharam ahareti, iti evrupam addhamasikam pi pariyayabhottabhajananuyogamanuyutto viharati.)

Out of these practices, several are reminiscent of the eight faults pertaining to food, which arementioned in the Mulacara viz. Udgama; Utpadana, Esana, Samyojana, Angara, Dhuma and Karano.32 These are identical with the rules prescribed for Jaina monks. Jacobi also accepts that "many are quite clear, and bear a close resemblance to well known Jaina usages.33"

The Udgamadosa84 are of sixteen kinds. viz. Adhahkarma, Auddesika, Adhyadhi, Putimisra, Sthapita, Bali, Praviskarama, Krita, Pramrsya, Abhighata, Udhinna, Malaroha, Accheddya and Anisrsta. Among these faults some are referred to in the above reference. They are as follows:

Nabhikatam (5) is the abhighata dosa of the Mulacara, according to which a Jaina monk should not aceept the food brought from other places85:

Na uddisakatam (6) is Auddesika Dosa of the Mulacara which means: whatever is prepared specially for any saint or Sramana or Nirgrantha, should not be accepted by a Jaina monk.86 The reaso behind this rule is that the lay-devotees of Jainism should always take pure food and be prepared to offer faultless food to a monk at any time.87 Na kumbhimukha patigganhati, na kalopimukha patigganhati, na elakamantaram, na dandamantaram, na musalamantaram (8-11) are the Sthapita and Misra dosas pertaining to food in Jaina asceticism.88 According to these rules, the utensils and things cooked therein should not be mixed:

Pasanndehi ya saddham sagarehim ya jadannamuddisiyam.

Dadumidi samjadanam Siddham missam viyanahi.

Pagadu bhayanao annamhi ya bhayanamhi pakkhaviya.

Saghare va paraghare va nihidam thavidam viyanahi.89

Sankattisu (16) is the Praduskara (sankramana) and Rnadosa of the Mulacara. According to them, the food for Jaina monks should neither be collected nor be borrowed from any other places.90 This indicates that a donation should be made according to one's capacity.91 So ekagariko va. dvagariko va. sattagariko vahoti (20) are identical with the Acinna dosa. A muni should not go begging beyond seven houses. He is supposed to have returned in case he could not get alms92. Na dvinnam bhunjamananam, (12) Na gabbhiniya93, (13) Na payamanaya94 (14) Na puri santaragataya (15) are identical with the Dayaka Dosas, according to which a woman who is eating (ghasatti), is pregnant (gabbhini) or is nursing a baby (piyamanam darayam) is not eligible to offer alms to a monk.95 Na ehi bhadantiko, Na tittha bhadantiko (4) Na uddissakatam (6) are related to Uddista-tyaga, according to whic a Jaina monk does not accept any invitation. (uddistam pindamapyujjhed). 

Mode of eating

We have already seen that a Jaina monk (Digambara) does not possess anything except a water-pot and a broom. He therefore eats food in the hollow of his palms in a standing position.96 The hatthapalekhano (3) indicates the same mode of eating of Jaina saints in an ironical way. The Muttacaro (2) also perhaps hints the same. Somadeva points out here that although no body attains salvation by observing this mode of eating but it gives an impression that an ascetic takes an oath that he should take his meals till he could keep food in the hollow of his palms in standing position.97

Quantity of food

AJaina monk is supposed to fill half his belly with food, one fourth with water, and one fourth with wind. The maximum quantity of food to be taken ordinarly is 32 morsels (kavala).98 the `Ekalopiko, dvalopiko, sattalopiko indicate further restrictions on the quantity of food consumed by a monk. 

The Circumstances under which Food could not be taken

A long list of circumstances under which food could not be taken is given in the Mulacara. If a crow touches the food or if some one vomits or if the monk happens to see blood or flesh or somebody crying or if living beings like flies fall into his food, no food should be accepted under such circumstances. Na yattha sa upatthito hoti (17), Na yattha makkhika sandasandacarini (18), Na maccham, na mamsam, na suram, na merayam, na thusodakam pivati (19) point out further circumstances.


The reference "Ekahikam pi aharam ahareti, dvihikam aharam ahareti, sattihikam pi aharam ahareti, iti evarupam addha masikam pi pariyayabhattabhojananuyogamanuyutto viharati," (22) shows that fasting was prevalent in the Acelaka sect, especially in Jainism. According to Jaina ethical standpoint, one should fast according to dravya (substance), ksetra (place), kala (time), and bhava (mental state. Various methods fasting are mentioned in Jaina literature and monks used to fast even for months.99

Thus the above mentioned references to Acelaka's practices in Pali literature are related in many respects to the practices of Jaina monachism. 

Supernatural Powers

Supernatural powers of Jaina monks are referred to in Jaina literature.100 But they were prohibited to show them in public for such purposes as obtaining food.101 Later on, certain occasions the Jaina monks were allowed to make us of such powers.102 Acarya Smantabhadra103 and Siddhasena Divakar104 are famous for displaying such supernatural powers.

The Vinaya Pitaka105 mentions that the six heretical teachers including Nigantha Nataputta approached a great merchant of Rajagaha to get a bowl. But all of them failed and Pindola Bharadwaja, a follower of the Buddha, fetched it down. Likewise, the Digha Nikaya refers to an incident where a Nigantha failed in manifesting the supernatural powers which he claimed. How far these references are correct, we cannot say. But the Jaina literature, does not preserve any record of such incidents which could tally with these references in Pali literature. 

Daily routine

As regards the routine of a Jaina monk, he is supposed to spend more time in study and meditation. He gets up early in the morning and pays his homage to the Pancaparamesthins during Samayika or Kayotsarga. Besides begging and preaching he engages himself in the performance of duties without transgressions. His duties are to observe the Pancamahavratas, pancasamitis, Sadavasyakas Pancendriyas Dvadasanupreksas, twenty two Parisahas, Pancacaras, and Triguptis. References to them as found in the Pali literature are as follows:

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Panre as follows:


The Samannaphala Sutta of the Digha Nikaya mentions the Catuyamasamvre are as fre as fore asre as follows:

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The Samannaphala Sutta of the Digha Nikaya mentions the Catuyre as followre as follows: 

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Thre as re as followsre as follows: 

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Pre as fre as follows:re as follows: 

Pancamahavre as re as follows:re as follows: 


The s avoided.

This is undoubtedly a very faint picture of Nigantha Nataputta's doctrine. Buddhaghosa's Sumangalavilasini also does not help much in this respect. Jacobi remarks: "This is certainly, neither an accurate nor an exhaustive description of the Jaina creed, though it contains nothing alien from it and successfully imitates the language of the Jaina Sutras." He further says that "The Buddhists, I suppose, have made a mistake in ascribing to Nataputta Mahavira's doctrine which properly belonged to his predecessor Parsva. This is a signiflcant mistake; for the Buddhists could not have used the above term as descriptive of the Niganthas creed unless they had heard it from followers of Parsva, and they would not have used it if the reforms of Mahavira had already been generally adopted by the Niganthas at the time of the Buddha."108

There are several versions of the Samannaphala Sutta different from each other. For instance, the Tibetan Dulva retains Nigantha Nataputta's authentic teaching of wiping and karma by penance, while in one of its Chinese versions date 412-13 A.D. Nigantha Nataputta claims omniscience, and in another Chinese version dated 381-395 A.D., he is mentioned to hold the view of karma.109 Basham thinks that SamannaphalaSutta shows a completeness and consistency lacking in the rest, and perhaps represents the original source of the other references"110 This, however, does not seem to be quite correct. As a matter of fact, the Caluyamasamvara followed by Parsvanatha tradition comprised: (i) Sarvapranatipataveramana, (ii) Sarvamrsavadaveramana, (iii) Sarvadattadanaveramana, and (iv) Sarvabahiddhadanaveramana. Here the Maithuna (sexual intercourse and Parigraha (worldly attachment) were included in the last vow, that is Sarvabahiddhadanaveramana.

In course of time its real meaning was forgotton and the followers of Parsvanatha tradition or Pasavaccijja considered the Sarvabahiddhadanaveramana (Parigraha) as concerned only, with wealth, and not sexual desires. As a result, they did not consider the Strisamibhoga to be a falt if it is done for getting a son.113 This is the reason why one was advised not to have contact with them.114

Observing this slackened conduct, Nigantha Nataputta separated the last into two vow viz. Brahmacarya (celibacy) and Aparigraha (non-attachment to the worldly enjoyment), and made it into five. Since then the Jainas are called the followers of five great vows (Pancamahavratas).115 It seems, as we have already seen that the Pali Canon was also familiar with Pancamahavratas


The Majjhima Nikaya111 describes the kind of language which should be used by a Jaina monk. It is said there that "Nigantha Nataputta sent Abhayarajakumara to the Buddha to ask a question whether he (the Buddha) utters a speech that is disliked by others, or disagreeable to them. If he speaks so, what is the difference between him and a common man." This indicates that according to Nigantha Nataputta no monk should speak harshaly.117 


Among the Sadavsyakas, only the Kayotsarga * is referred to in Pali literatute. In the Majjhima Nikaya118 the Buddha told Mahanama that while he was staying at Rajagaha, he had seen a number of Niganthas on the Isigili Kalasila standing erect, refraining from sitting, and experiencing acute, painful, sharp and bitter sensations.

This reference indicates the Kayotsarga or Samayika as prescribed for the Jaina monks. It should be performed without movement of or attachment to the body (sthitasyasinasya sarvangacalanarahitasya subhadhyanasya vrttih Kayotsargah,119

Loca or Kesaluncana

One should pull out his hair of head and beard in five handfuls with intervals of two, three or four months following a upavasa and Pratikramana.120 Before the attainment of Buddhahood, Prince siddhartha had himself observed this rule. He says, "I was one who plucked out the hairs of head and beard intent on the practice of doing so (kesamassulocako hoti, kesamassulocananuyogamauuyutto).121



Acelakatva (nakedness) with non-attachment to anything is essential to attain salvation.122 According to the Majjhima Nikaya123, the Buddha, too, followed this rule before attaining Buddhahood.



Trigupti is the essence of a monk's creed to which he should thoroughly adher to destroy karmas.124 The Niganthas, who were engaged in severe penance on Gijjhakutapabbata at Rajagaha said to the Buddha that according to Nigantha Nataputta, the past deeds could be destroyed by preserving the proper control over the mind, body, and speech (yam panetha etarahi kayena sambuta; vacaya samvuta, manasa samvuta tam ayatim papassa kammassa akaranam.......). As its corollary it is said that the kayadanda, vacidanda and manodanda are said to be the causes of sins.125

Meditation126 (dhyana) and concentration (samadhi) are fundamental obligations of a Jaina monk. Meditation is of four kinds, namely Artadhyana (painful concentration) Raudra dhyana (wicked concentration), Dharmadhyana (righteous concentration) and Sukladhyana (pure concentration). The first two are the causes of bondage to the karmas, while the last two lead to salvation,127 The severe penance observed by the Niganthas at Rajagaha was to attain the last two dhyanas, for which the self-realization was essential. The regular study, the right conduct, right attitude, and non-attachment, are the factors which pave the way to Dharmadhyana.128 The Sukladhyana contributes to the steadiness of the mind which ultimately results in the attainment of omni science.

Thus the reference to Jaina ethics as found in Pali literature are, though meagre and sometimes defective, very important. From our survey of these references, we may conclude that:

(i) Catuyamasamvara was followed by the Parsvanatha tradition, and not Nigantha Nataputta tradition, and the Buddha and his followers were not perfectly aware of this difference in the two traditions.

(ii) Nigantha Nataputta separated the last vow of Catuyamasamvara into two Brahmacarya and Parigraha, which was known to the Pali Canon,

(iii) The Gunavratas and Siksavratas were so popular among both the monks and the laity that their nature and implications were well known to Buddhist circles.

(iv) Acelakatva and other severe forms of penance were put into practice in Jaina community during that period, and Jainism had already acquired a fame for the severity of its vows and observences.

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