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Jainism in Buddhist Literature
                                                                By Dr. Hiralal Jain

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NOTES 

CHAPTER I 

Antiquity of Sramana System 

1. Upadhye, A. N. Mahavira and his Philosophy, Lord Mahavira and his Teachings, Bombay, 1961.

2. Eliot, Sir Charles, Hinduism and Buddhism, Vol. l. p. 53.

3.   Williams, S. M., Sanskrit-English Dictionary (s. v. Brahmana), p. 741.

4. See the Upanisad and Vedanga literature.

5. Chaup. Viii. 7. 1.

6.   Dasgupta, S. N., A History of Indian Philosophy, Vol. l. p. 22.

7. Rgveda, 10. 90. 12.

8. A. i. 167; D. iii. 16; S. i. 45 Dhp. 164

9.   Sanskrit. English Dictionary (Williams), s. v. Sramana, p. 1097.

10.   Samacariya samano ti vuccati, Dhp. 388. Cf. Samita papatta Samana, DhA. iii. 84.

11.   Mahabhasya, 2. 4. 9.

12.   Jetly, Historical Position of Jainism, Ahimsa and Jainism, Bombay, 1959-60.

13.   Deo, S. V., History of Jaina monachism, p. 56; also see R. Garbe, Philosophy of Ancient India, p. 12.: Jainism, Mrs. N. R. Guseva. P. 4-18.

14.   Vratya asidiyamana eva sa Prajapatim samaisyat...... Atharavaveda, 15. 1-4; The Pali literature (Theraga tha) also refers Vratyas. Confer; Ananda Guruge, Vidyodaya Lipi, Colombo, 1962, p, 71, where arguments are adduced to porve that Vratyas of an Eastern Indian were the survivals of Indus Valley Civilisation.

15.   Caturo Samana na pancamatthi te te avikaromi Sakkhaputtho. Maggajino maggadesiko ca, magge jivati yo ca maggadusin, Sn. 83-4.

16.   Yama assa vadam parihanamahu, apahatam panhavimanskesu. Paridevati saccati hinavado, upaccago mam'ti anutthunanti. Sn. 827; Ete vivada samanesu jata, Sn. 828.

17.   54, 151, 786 etc.

18.     Ye kec'ime titthiya vadasila, ajivika va yadi va Nigantha. Pannaya tam natitaranti sabbe, thito vajantam viya sighagamim. Sn. 381.

19.   Shastry, N. Aiyasvami, Sramanas or non-Brahmanical Sects, The Cultural Heritage of India, Vol. l. p. 389 ff.

20.     p. 949, 342 b.    21.   ibid. p. 949.

22.   Cf. yato, kho, Kassapa, bhikkhu averam avyapajjam mettacittam bhaveti, asavanam khaya anasavam cetovimuttim pannavimuttim dittheva dhamme sayam sacchikatva upasampajja viharati, ayam vucati, Kassapa, bhikkhu, Samano ti, D. i. 170.

23.   Hirottappam, parisuddho kayasamacaro.........M. i. 271; D. i. 170.

24.   Op. Cit. Vol. l. p. 386 ff.    25.   Op. Cit. p. 45.

26.   Samvayanga, 10. l.    27.   ibid. 12. 2.

28.     v. i., Parajika.    A. i. 229.

29.   The sixty two Micchaditthis as mentioned in the Brahmajalsutta are as follows in chief eight heads : viz. Sassatavadin, Ekaccasassatavadika, Antanantika, Amaravikkhepika, Adhiccassamuppannika, Uddhamaghatin, Ucchedavadin and the Ditthadhammavadin.

30.   The Sutrakratanga refers to 363 view under four main sects, viz. Kriyavada, Akriyavada, Ajnanavada and Vinayavada, 1.1 12 ff.

31.   Lalitavistara, ed. Lefmana, Vol. l. p. 380; Mahavastu,

32.   Saddarma Pundarika, (Kern), pp. 275-6.

33.   Brahatkathakosa, intro. p. 13.

34.   See the Buddhist literature; Sn., Selasutta.

35.     A. 276.    36.   Utta. Chap. xxv;

37.   Uvasaga. pp. 108,

38.   Dialogues of Buddha, ll. intro., p. 165,

39.   Op. Cit.

40.   Cf. D. i. 5; ii. 150; A. i. 110, 173, sq; Iti. 64 : Sn. 189 : V. ii. 295.

41.   Upadhyaya, B. D., Sanskrit Sahitya ka Itihasa, p. 148.

42.   Mahabhasya. 2. 4. 9.

43.   Kalasi Rock. Edict, lll; Girinara Rock Edict, IV, VIII, etc.

44.   Buddhist Monks and Monasteries of India, p. 49; The Buddha and Five Year After Centuries. p. 3.

45.   History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas, p. 10.

46.     D. i. 49.

47.   Pre-Buddhistic Indian Philosophy, pp. 275.

48.   History and Doctrines of Ajivikas. p. 10.

49.   Purana Kassapa, Makkhali Gosala, and Sanjaya Belatthiputta are referred to in Jaina Literature.

50.   Karato kho karayato......panam atimapayato...natthi punnassa agamo. D. i. 52.

51.   Pre-Buddhist Philosphy, p. 279.

52.   Sukr. l. l. 12. 15. v. p. 209.

53.   Early Monastic Buddhism, Vol. l. p. 35.

54.     S. iii 69; V. 126.    55.  A. iii. 383; also see J. v. 227.

56.     A. iv.428.    57.   DA. i. 142.

58.   DhA; Cf. Divyavdana, Pratiharyasutra, pp. 100.

59.   Bhavasangraha, 175-179.

60.     D. i. 53.    61.  M. i. 513; Milindapanha, 4-5.

62.   Darsanasara, 176.    63.  l. Cf. Sukr. 2. 1. 345.

64.     A. i. 33.    65.  A. i. 289.

66.   DA. i. 166 f.    67.   Mahabhasya, 5. l. 154.

68.   Sutra, 216.

69.   N'tthi ayam loko ti paraloke thitassa pi ayam loko n'atthi, n'atthi paraloke ti idha loke thitassa pi paraloko n'atthi. Sabbe tattha tattha'eva ucchijanti ti dasseti, Sum. Vil. i. p. 165.

70.   Op. Cit. P. 166.

Also see Uttaradhyayana (SBB), p. 62.

Modgalayana was also a name of Jaina clan:, Sukr 7-8

71.   N'atthi......dinnam, n'atthi yittham, n'atthi hutam, ......ucchijjanti vinassanti, na hontiparam marana. (Digha, I, p. 55. A remarkable parallel to this passage is to be found in the Sutrakrtanga (II. i. 9 Fol. 375 FF. i. SBE. XIV. II. i. 15-17; History and doctrines of Ajivikas--Basham. PP. 15-16.

72.   DA. i. 144; MA. i. 422-3.

73.     Satt' ime......kaya akata akata-vidha animmita animmata vanjha kutattha esika-tthayi-tthita. Te na injanti na viparinamanti na annam-annam vyaba-dhenti n' alam annaannassa sukhaya va dukkhaya va sukkha-dukkhaya va. Katame satta ? Pathavi-kayo apo-kayo tejokayo vayokayo sukhe dukhe jive-sattme......Tattha n'tthi hanta va ghateta va sotta va Saveta va vinnata va vinnapeta va. Yo pi tinhena satthena sisam chindati na koci kinci jivita voropeti, Sattannam yeva kayanam antarena sattha-vivaram anupatati. D. i. 56. Compare with the Sutrakrtanga 1. 1. 10, fol. 280 ff. SBE. XIV, i. 20-4. History and doctrines of Ajivikas, p. 16.

74.   DA. i. 144.

75.   "Atthi paro loko ?" ti iti ce tam pucchasi, "atthi paro loko" ti iti ce me assa, "atthi paro loko" ti te mam vyakareyyam. Evam pi me no. Tatha ti pi me no. Annatha ti pi me no. No ti pi me no. No no ti pi me no....D. i. 58.

76.     V. i. 42, 391.

77.   Rustah Sriviranathasya tapasvi Maudgalayanah. Sisyah Sriparsvanathasya vidadhe Buddhadarsanam. Suddodanasutam Buddham paramatmanambrabit. AS. 6.    78.   DPPN, p. 1000.

79.   Tarhyastiti na bhanami, nastiti ca na bhanami, yadapi ce bhanami, tadapi na bhanamiti darsanamastviti kascit, so `pi papiyan......Astasahasri, p. 129.

80.   Dighanikaya, Brahmajalasutta.

81.   Sabbavariyuto ti sabbena papavaranena yutto. Sabbavaridhuto ti sabbena papavaranena dhutapapo. Sabbavariphuttho ti sabbena papavaranena phuttho...... Catatto ti kotippattacitto. Sum. Vil. i. p. 168.

82.   Nigantho catuyam asamvarasamvuto hoti. Kathanca... Nigantha sabbavarivarito ca hoti, sabbavaridhuto ca. sabbaphutto ca. evam kho, Maharaja, Nigantho...... Ayam vuccati, Maharaja, Nigantho gatatto ca yatatto ca thitatto ca ti. D. i. 37.

83.   Jaina Sutras, pt 11. SBE. xiv. intro. pp. xx-xxi.

85.     D. i. 58.    84.  S. iv. 317-8.

86.     A. iii, 276-7.

87.   Milinda Panha, 259 FF. Sum. Vil. i. 168.

88.     A. ii. 199.    89.  M. i. 374. F.

90.     V. i. 233. F.; A. iv. 179 F, See also the Telovada Jataka.    91. M. ii, 31, A. i. 220. F.

92.     M. ii, 31; A. iii, 74.

93.   Early Monastic Buddhism, Vol. l. p. 40.

94.   Encyclopaedia of Buddhism (s. v. Ajivika), p. 330.

95.     M. i. 238

96.     Ye keci `ime titthiya vadasila Ajivika va yadiva nigantha. Pannaya tam natitaranti sabbe thito vajantam. viya sighagamin. 321.

97.   Sandakasutta.    98.   DHA. i. 309.

99.   ibid. pp. 390.    100. p. 427.

101.   Sugiura, Hindu Logic as preserved in China and Japan, Philadephia, 1900, p. also see ERE. i. p. 269.

102.   Abhidhana Ratnamata, ii. 189; Vaijayanti, Ed., Oppert. p. 202, v. 16.

103.   ERE. i. pp. 266-7.

104.   History and Doctrines of Ajivikas, p. 184. See, Jaina Sahitya ka Itihasa : Purvapithika, pp. 463 for refutaton of the theory of Hoernle.

105.    Te Gosalakamatanusarina Ajivikadayah (sic) Botika va. SuKr. Com. i. 3. 3. 14, fol. 92. Eke ye parasparopakararahitam darsanamayantam ayahsatakakalpah, te ca Gosalakamatanusarina Ajivika Digambara va, ibid., 3. 3. 8. v. p. 91.

106.    ERE: i. p. 262.

107.   Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, pp. 332 f.

108.   Varahamihira in his Brhajjataka (15. 1.) also refers to the Ajivikas. For a full discussion of this reference see Ajaya Mitra Shastri, Barahamihira's reference to the Ajivikas, J. O. I. Vol. xii, p. 44-50.

109.   Samyagdarsanajnanacaritrani moksamargah, Tsu. 1. l; Cf. Majjhima Nikaya, Sammaditthi Sutta.

110.   Majjhima Nikaya, Mahamalunkya Suttam.

111.   Bandhahetvabhavanirijarabhyam krtsnakarmavipramokso moksah, Tsu. 10. 2; SS. p. I.

112.   Gataddhino visokassa, vippamuttassa sabbadhi. Sabbaganthappahinassa, parilaho na vijjati. DhP. 90.

113.    M. i. 03; ii. 214 ff.

114.   The Buddha condemned the Niganthas as unworthy in ten respects : they were without faiths, unrighteous, without fear and shame, they chose wicked men as friends, extolled themselves and disparaged others, were greedy of present gain, obstinate, untrustworthy, sinful in their thoughts and held wrong views., A. v. 156.

115.   IA. IX. 162; quoted by Kamata Prasada, Bhagawana Mahavira, p. 263 fn. 4. 

2. Jainism And ItS Literature 

1. There are two great cycles (kalpas) Utsarpani (Evolution) and Apasarpani (Involution). Each of these is divided into six periods; (i) Sukhama sukhama or the period of great happiness. (ii) Sukhama or the period of happiness, (iii) Sukhama duhkhama or the age of happiness and some misery, (iv) Duhkhamasukhama or the age of misery and some happiness, (v) Duhkhama or the age of misery. The present era is the fifth one which is to last twenty-one thousand years. Two thousand and five hundred years have already passed.

The present Kalpa is Utsarpani, in which twenty-four Jain Tirthankara appeared : (1) Rsabhadeva (2) Ajitanatha (3) Sambhavanatha (4) Abhinandananatha (5) Sumatinatha (6) Padmanatha (7) Suparsvanatha (8) Candaprabha (9) Puspadanta (10) Sitalanatha (11) Sreyansanatha (12) Vasupujya (13) Vimalanatha (18) Arahanatha (19) Mallinatha (20) Munisuvratanatha (21) Naminatha (22) Neminatha (23) Parsvanatha, and (24) Mahavira (Vardhamana) or Nigantha Nataputta of Pali literature.

2.   Kalpasutra, S B E., xxii., pp. 281-285 : Harivamsa-Purana, 8. 15. Mahapurana of Puspadanta, Sandhis 1-3.

3.   Atharvaveda, Chapt xv.; They may be purified with the vratyastoma method and treated as follower of Vaidic religion. (Katyayana and Apastambha Srautasutra). Munayo vatarasanah pisanga vasate mala (Rgveda, 10. 136, 2-3), Kesyagnim kesi visam (ibid. 10. 136. 1), and Kakardava Krasabho yukta asid (ibid. 10. 102.6) etc. are the references to prove the antiquity of Jainism.

4. Rgveda, 10. 102. 6.

5. Visnu Purana (ed. Wilson), 2. 1. p. 163; Bhagavat Purana, 5. 3. 6.; Markandeya Purana, 50; Kurma Purana 41; Agni. 10; etc.

6. Jain, K. P., JA. Vol. 1. No. ii., 1935, p. 19. Also see Modern Review, August, 1932-Sindhu Five Thousand Years Ago. Ramchandran, T. N., Hadappa and Jainism, Anekanta, October, 1972. pp. 159.

7. JBORS. iii. 465.

8. The Philosophy of India, p. 60.

9. Weber, (Indische Studian, xvi. 210; Jaina Itihasa Series, No. 1. p. 6; Jainism in North India, introduction.) adduces four points of coincidence. which, according to his opinion, prove that Jainism, has branched off from Buddhism, (Indische Alterthumskunde, iv. p. 763). This theory has been refuted by Jacobi. See Jain Sutras, l. intro. xxi.

10.   IA., Vol. ix. p. 163.

11.   The Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist terms, p. 184.

12.   Manjusrimulakalpa, 45. 27, ed. Ganapati Shastri, Trivendram, 1920; Buddhist Sanskrit Dictionary, (s. v. Nirgrantha); Mahavastu, vol, 1. p-369.

13.   p.286.    14.   ThegA., i. 68.

15.   S., ii. 192.    16.   J., i. 36.

17.   ThegA., i. 335; Ap., i. 287; see also., iii. 70, and PVA., 75.

18.   AP., i. 50.    19.   Bu., xxi. 122.

20.   J., vi 133 ff.    21.   M., iii. 70; Ap., i. 107.

22.   Ap., i. 205; ThegA. i. 115.

23.   Dhammajataka.    24.  p. 212.

25.   DPPN., S. V. Dhamma.

26.   A., iii. 373.

27.   Isigilisutta.

28.   Dialogues of the Buddha, iii. p. 60.

29.   Paccesanti paka-senti totola tattala tototla. Ojasi tejasi tatojasi suro raja Aritth Nemi. D., iii. 291.

30.   Mhv., trans. 72. n. 3.

31.   Mhv., x. 63-72.

32.   A., i. 290; ii. 11, quoted by J. C. Jain, in the Life in Ancient India, p. 19; also see Kalpasutra 6.149; Schubring, Die Lehre Der Jainas, p. 24.

Jacobi, SBE., xiv. pp. intro., xiv-xxi; Dasagupta, History of Indian Philosophy. l. p. 173.

33.     p. 236.    34.   A., ii. 196 ff.

35.   M., i. 371 ff.    36.   ibid., 392 ff.

37.   ibid., 237 ff.; MA., i. 450

38.   ibid., 371. ff.    39.   S., iv. 312 ff.

40.   Ninkha (Nika) is a Deva who visits the Buddha in the company of several other Devas and utters a verse in praise of Nigantha Nataputta:

Jegucchi tapako bhikkhu Catuyama susamvuto.

Nittham sutam ca acikkham na hi nuna kibbisi siya.

41.   Mahavagga 42.  S. i. 65. f.

43. J. iii., l.    44.  M. i. 371 ff.

45.   Jaya Dhavala, Vol. i. p. 78.

46.   Tiloyapannatti, 4. 550.

47.   Acaranga, 2. 3. 402,; Kalpasutra, 110.

48.   According to the Svetambara tradition, however, Mahavira was married. But the tradition is now challenged by the result of researches done by Shri Parmananda Shastri, See, Anekanta, kirana 9, March 1955, p. 233.

49.   SnA` ii., 432; Tiloya Pannati, 4.550.

50.   MA., 423; Cf. MV., 1.113.5; Mahavyutpatti, 3550; Sp., 276; 3; Divya., 143.12; As., i. 231.5; LV., 380.12; Bodhisatvabhumi, 246.6; Cf. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary, p. 300. The Dharmottarapradipa and the Tattvasangraha refer to Nigantha Nataputta as Vardhamana. 3.11.

51.   See in detail my article "Bhagavana Mahavira aura Mahatma Buddhake vyaktigata samparka", published in Jaina Milana, Vol. l. 1968.

53.     D. i. 57.

54.   D., iii. 119 (Pasadika Sutta); M., ii. 244 (Samagama Sutta); Here the Buddha is referred to have seated at Samagama among the Sakyas; D., iii. 209 f. Here he is said to have seated to Pava.

55.   SBE., Vol. xxii. intro., p. xxvii. 1884.

56.   SBE., Vol. xxii. intro., p. xxxvii. 1894.

57.   Evam ca Mahaviramukte varsaste gate. Pancasadadhike Candragupto bhavernnrp h. 8.339.

58.   IA., 1914, pp. 118; also see the Cambridge History of India, Vol. i. pp. 139-140. Charpentier here thinks that the Vikrama era commences 410 years after the Mahavira's death, 527-60-467. B. C.).

59.   History and Dectrines of the Ajivikas, p. 74.

60.   ibid., 75.

61.     An Advanced History of India, pp. 85-6. Jacobi also seems to have supported this view later on, see his article Jainism. in ERE., 7. pp. 465.

62.   Uvasagadasao, ii. p. lll, n; History of the Ajivikas. p. 76.

63.   Vikkamarajjarambha parao siriviranibbu bhaniya. Sunnam muniveyajutto vikkamakalau Janakale. Vicarasreni.

64.   IA., Vol. 43.

65.   Cunningham, A. Book of Indian Eras. p. 49.

66.   Sattari cadusadjutto tinkala Vikkamo havai jammo. Athavarsa balalila sodasavasehi bhammie dese. Nandisangha's second Prakrita Pattabali. This verse is also found in the Vikrama Prabandha : see, JSB. kirana, 4, p. 75.

67.   Subhasitaratnasandoha of Amitagati.

68.   IA., 1914, pp. 118.

69.   Acarangasutra, SBE., Vo. xxii., intro., p. xxxvii.

70.   Jam rayanim siddhigao araha titthankaro Mahaviro.

Tam rayanimavantie abhisitto palao raya.

Palagaranno sattho pana panasayam viyani nandinam.

Muriyanam satthisayam tisa puna pusamittanam.

--Titthogali Painnaya, 620-621.

71.   Epitom of Jainism, Appendix A. p. iv.

72.   Trisastasalakapurisacaritra, 10. 12. 45.

73.     An Advanced History of India, p. 202,

74.   Mahavira aura Buddhaki Samasamayikata, Anekanta, 16. 1-4. Agama aura Tripitaka; Eka Anusilana, pp. 47.

75.   Vir-Nirvana Samvat aura Jaina Kala Ganana, 1930.

76.   Jaina Sahitya ka Itihasa (Purva-pithika), p. 336-7.

77.   Chronical Problems, Bona, Germany, 1934; Jaina Bharatiya, Varsa 10, anka, l. p. 5-21.

78.   Tirthankara Mahavira, Bombay, 1963, Vol. ll. p. 319-324.

79.   JBORS. 1. 203.

80.   Hindu Sabhyata (Hindu Civilization),pp. 216.

81.   Bhagawana Mahavira aura Mahatma Buddha, pp. 100.

82.   Prasasti Khandya, padya, 1.

83.   Law. B. C; Some Jaina Canonical Sutras, p. 178.

84.   Bharatiya Vidya, Varsa, 3, anka, 1.

85.   Darsana Digdarsana, p. 444, fn. 3.

86.   Jain Sahitya aure Itihasa, pp, 424.

87.   Majjhima Nikaya

88.   Kalpasutra, 128.

89.     M. ii, 243 F.; D. iii, 117, 210.

90.   Dialogues of the Buddha, iii. p. 112.

91.   DA, iii, 906; MA. ll, 851; 851; DPPN., S. V. Nigantha.

92.   Avasyaka mul., bha., v. 127.

93.   Jain, Jyoti Prasad, Bharatiya Itihasa : Eka Drasti, Khanda I.

94.   MA. i, 423.

95.   DPPN. Pt. II. p. 64.

96.   For detailed discussion please see my article "Schism in Jaina Order".

97.   Jain, M. K., Jaina Darsana, p. 14.

98.     It is to be mentioned here that the Digambaras relate their scriptures to Gautama Ganadhara, the first and direct disciple of Mahavira, while the Svetambaras relate to Subharma Svami, the successor of Gautama Gnandhara.

99.   Tiloya Pannatti, 4. 1476-90.

100.   See Jaina Sahitya ka Braha Itihasa, Vol. 1-5

101.   History of Jaina Monachism.

102.   Jaina Silalekha Sangraha, Vol. l. p. l.

103.   The Svetambara tradition believes in his coming back to Magadha and then going to Nepal for Mahapranadhyana, Parisistaparvan.

104.   Samacarisataka of Samayasundarigani, Cf. Doshi, Vechar Das, Jaina Sahityamam Vikara thavathi thayeli hani,).;

105.   Winternitz, M. A.; History of Indian Literature, Vol. ii. p. 434-5.

106.   History of Jaina Monachism, p. 22. op. cit., p. 22.

107.   Sukr. v. 136. p. 253.

108.   Milinda Panha, p. 19. (Bombay edition); DhA. Vol. i. p. 129.

109.   Eliot, Sir Charles, Hinduism and Buddhism, Vol. i. p. 117; A History of Jaina Philosophy, Vol. i. p. 170.

110.   Winternitz, M. A., History of Indian Literature, Vol. ii. p. 426.

111.   Sarvarthasiddhi, l. 20.

112.   Tiloyapannatti, 4. 1476-90. Also see the Harivamsaparans, Dhavala, Jayadhavala, Adipurana, and Srutavatara; Jayadhavala; Vol. i. intro. p. 47 50.

113.    Dhavata, Vol. i. intro., p. 23-30.

114.   Syadavadapariksa.

115.   Vadiraja referred to Sanmati in the Parsvanathacarita as a Commentator on the Sanmati which would be the Sammati Prakarana of Siddhasena. Another contribution made by him is referred to in the Mallisenaprasasti of Sravanavelagola. There is mentioned his work "Sumatisaptaka" which is not available.

116.   EL., Vol. xxi. intro. p. 45.

117.   TS. intro. p. 92.

118.   Nanyathanupapannatvam yatra tatra trayena kim. Anyathanupapannatvam yatra tatra trayena kim. ibid. 1369.

119.   NVVI. Vol. ii. p. 234.

120.   SVT. p. 371; TSV. p. 205; Pramanapariksa, p. 72; JTV. p. 135; SKT. p. 225.

121.   "Dharmkirti ke Trilaksanahetupara Patrakesarika Akramana", Bharatiya Prachina Vidysa, 12. pp. 71-80.

122.   History of Indian Logic. p. 187.

123.   Shastri, K. C., Svami Patrakesari aura vidyananda, Anekanta, Varsa l. p. 67.; NKC. 1. intro. p. 76

124.   ibid. p. 75.    125.   EC. Vol. viii, No. 39.

126.   SVT. Vol. i. intro p.    127.   Jaina Darsana, p. 23.

128.   VBH. 95.    129.   SVT. Vol. i. intro. pp. 53-62.

130.   ibid. p. 69-70.    131. D. i. 47 f., M. ii. 2 f.

132.    M. i. 31. 380.; A. i. 220 f.

133.   ibid. 371. ff.

134.   ibid, 392 ff.    135. S. iv. 312 ff.

136.   Dutt, N. Early Monastic Buddhism, Vol. i, p. 145.

137.    S. i. 68; M. i. 205; 400, 426.

138.   DPPN. (s. v. Migara). DjA. i. 387 ff.; AA. i. 220; MA. i. 471.

139.    A. ii. 25; AA. ii. 482 f.

140.    M. i. 91 ff.

141.    M. ii. 214 ff.; M. ii. 31; A. i. 220; M. 92 B.

142.    A. ii. 196 ff.

143.   Jaina Sutras, Vol. xxii. p. 194.

144.    M. i. 234; MA, i. 450.    145.   MA. i. 450.

146.    A. i. 220-ff.    147. V. 233. f; A. iv. 179 f.

148.    M. ii. 243, ff; D. iii. 117, 210. See Early Monastic Buddhism, p. Vol. l. pp. 145 ff.

149.   Mahavamsa, 10. 53-59 (tram).

150.   Mahavamsa, pp. 67.

151.   ibid. 10. 65.    152.   ibid. xxxiii. 43-44.

153.   ibid, xxxiii. 79.    154.   Mahavamsati ka, p. 444.

155.   See, Harivamsaparana; Pauma Cariu, etc.

156.   Vividhatirthakalpa, pp. 93.

157.   ibid. p. 102.

158.   Brahatkathakosa of Harisena, p. 200.

159.   Karkandu cariu, pp. 44-69.

160.   Mahamayuri, ed. by Sylviam Levi, JA. 1915, pp. 40; cf. The Society of the Ramayana, p. 68.

161.   Jaina Silalekha Sangraha, p. 133

162.   Pre-Buddhist Religious Beliefs, JRAS. (Ceylon), Vol. xxxi, No. 82, 1929, p. 325, 

C. Buddhism And Its Literature 

1. See my article Historicity of the Buddha published in the Mahabodhi Journal,

2. Buddha, Trans. by Hoey, p. 6.

3. Buddhist Philosophy, pp. 142-3.

4. Die Lehre der Upanishaden und die Anfange des Buddhism, p. 296.

5. Referred by T. W. Rhys Devids in his book Origin and Growth of Religion, p. 27.

6. Studies in the Origin of Buddhism, p. 547.

7. Beal, Life of Buddha, SBE. Vol. xix. p. 141; Buddhistic Studies, pt. ll; p, 118.

8. M. ii. 77.

9.   So.........sato va abhikkamami sato patikkamami, yava udabindumhi me daya paccupatthita hoti, ma ham khuddaka pane visamagate sanghatam apadessan ti, M. i. 78. Also see Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, p. 465.

10.     M. i. 238.    11.   Darsanasasa, 6-9.

12.   According to Buhler, Pitaka is a basket, in which manuscripts were preserved (Indian Studies, iii, 2nd Ed., Strassburg, 1898, p. 86 ff.), Rhys Davids, (SBE. Vol. 35, p. 28) and Trenckner (JPTS. 1908, p. 119 f.) think that Pitaka does not mean "receptacle" but rather "tradition". See also Winternitz's Indian Literature, Vol. i. p. 8. fn. l.

13.   Mahavamsa,

14.   Kern : Manual of Indian Buddhism, p. 2. In the opinion of Franke, the Mahavagga and Cullavagga of the Vinaya Pitaka would be later then the Dighanikaya (JPTS. 1908, pp. 8ff., 58 ff. See Indian Literature, p. 21 fn. 3.

15.     D. ii. 42. cf. DHP. 185.

16.   Rhys Davids, Buddhism (American Lectures), p. 62.

17.     M. i, 133; Milindapanha, 345 etc. According to records of Mahayana Buddhism, there are twelve Angas, Manual of Indian Buddhism, p. 7.

18.   Childers, Dictionary of Pali Language, under there words.

19.   Buddhist India, pp. 121-2.

20.     A History of Pali Literature, Vol. i. p. l.

21.   ibid., p. 42.

22.   Milindapanha, (Trenckner Ed.), pp. 13, 190, 21 13; A History of Pali Literature, p. 12.

23.     A History of Pali Literature, p. 12.

24.   DA. iii. 117, 220    25.   MA. ii. 243. 

CHAPTER II 

Jaina Philosophy 

1. Ghosal, S. C., Pancastikaya, intro. p. xxix.

2.   Utpadavyayadhrauyayuktam sat, TSu. 5. 30.

3. PK. 10.    4.   ibid. 13.

5. ibid. 8.    6.   ibid. 10-11.

7. DS. 23.    8.   ibid. 25.

11.   DS. 24-48.

12.   ix. 113. 9. ll; x. 14. 3-10; A History of Indian Literature, p. 2.

13.   xviii. 2. 27.

14.   vi. 2. 2. 27; 6. 3. l; xi. 7. 2. 23; A History of India Logic, p. 2-3.

15.   BUp. iv. 4. 19; cf KUp. ii. 4. 10-11.

16.     1. 1. 20; 1. 2. 18-19; 1. 2. 22; History of Indian Literanture, p. 3.

17.   Agamasastra, 111.

18.   Sankhya Bhosya, Brahmasvtra, ll. 1. 9.; Studies in Jaina Philosophy, p. 125.

19.   Studies in Jaina Philosophy, p. 125-8.

20.   Sankhya Karika, 62.

21.   Nyayasutrabhasya and Vratti, l. l. 10; Prasastapadabhasya, p. 643-44. studies in Jain Philosophy.

22.   Milinadapanha, pt. 1.    23.   TSu. 1. 4; 1. 2.

24.   Samayasara, 38.   25.   ibid. 49.

26.   DS. 2.    27.   TSu. 5. 23.

28.   ibid. 5. 24-25.    29.   PK. 15.

30.   ibid. 77.    31.   TSu. 6.2.

32.   ibid. 10. 2.    33.   SS. p. l.

34.     PK 90-96.    35.   DS., 19-20.

36.   PK., 107-108., Ds. 21.

37.   Atthi kho vo Nigantha, pubbe papakammam katam tam imaya katukaya dukkarakarikaya nijjiretha; yam panettha etarahi kayena samvuta, vacaya samvuta, manasa samvuta, tam ayatim papassa kammassa akaranam; iti puranam kammanam tapasa vyantibhava, navanam kammanam akarana, ayatim anavassava kammakkhaya, kammakkhya dukkhakkhayo, dukkhakkhyaya vedanakkhayo, vedanakkhaya sabbam dukkham nijjinnam bhavissati `ti. Tam ca panamha-kam ruccati ceva khamati ca. tena camham, attamana' ti, M. i. 93; cf. M. ii. 31; N. ii. 214; FF; also see A. i. 220.

38.     D. i. 31-39.    39.   ibid. i. 32.

40.   ibid. i. 31-39.   41.   ibid. i. 32.

42.   Udana, p. 67.   43.  D. i. 187; M. i. 431;

44.   Cf. D. i. 195; S. ii. 60.    Dharma Sangraha, 137.

45.   DS. 2.

46.   Arupa-samapatti-nimittam pana atta ti samapatti-sannan c' assa sanni gahetva va Nigantho-adayo pannapeti, viya takkamatten eva va, arupi atta sanni ti nam, Sumangala Vilasini. p. 110.

47.     D. i.186-7.; iii. 137.

48.   The Place of buddhism in Indian Thought, Journal of Vidyodaya University of Ceylon, Vol. i. No. l. , p. 25.

49.   Bhaskarabhasya; Baudhadarsana tatha anya Bharatiya-darsana, p. 824; Cf. Sandakasutta of Majjhimanikaya.

50.   Vijnaptimatratasiddhi, p. 7.

51.   Catuhsataka, 10-10.

52.   TSu. 5. 16; DS. 10.

53.   digambarasta eva prahuh. cillaksana evatma sa ca dravvarupena sarvavasthas vabhinnatvat anugamatmakah, paryayarupena tu pratyavastham bhinnatvat vyavrtyatmakah etacca pratyaksatah eva siddhama-tmano dvairupyamiti na pramanantaratah prasadhyam. TSP p. 118, Ka. 311.

54.   TS. 313-315.    55.   ibid. 325.

56.   HBT. p. 98-104.    57.   TS. 312.

58.   ibid. 316-18.    59.   327.

60.   Dravyaparyayarupatvat dvairupyam vastunah khalu. Tayoreka tmakatve'pi bhedah sanjnadibhedatah. Indriyajnananirbhasi vasturupam hi gocarah. Sabdanam naiva, tat kena sanjnabheded vibhinnata.

61.   Tao danda pannatta, tam jaha-manadande, vayadande, kayadande., Samavayanga, 3.1.

62.   seyyathidam-kayadandam, vacidandam, manodandam ti. imesam kho, avuso Gotamo, tinnam dandanam evam pativibhattanam evam pativisitthanam kayadandam Nigantho Nataputto mahasavajjataram pannapeti papassa kammassa kiriyaya papassa kammassa pavattiya, no tatha vacidandam, no tatha manodandam `ti., M., i. 372. FF.

63.   Bhava rahino sijjhai jai vi tavam carai koikodio. Jammam tarai bahuso lambiya hattho galiyayattho.

64.   PSU., 51.

65.   aham hi siha, a kiriyam vadami kayaduccaritassa vaciduccaritassa manoduccaritassa; anekavihitanam papakamanam akusalanam dhammanam akiriyam vadami......kusalanam dhammanam kiriyam vadami. A., iv 182 f. tran. by Thomas. The Life of the Buddha, p. 207.

66.   Lavayasankinah Lokayatikah Sakyadayasca. Tesam atmaiva nasti kutastatkriya tajjanito va karmavandha iti.........asthitanam kutah iti Akriyavaditvam. 12. 4. v. p. 218.

67.   Law, B. C., Some Jaina Canonical Sutras,: p. 189.

68.   SBE., xiv. p. xxv. quoted in the Heart of Jainism, p. 90. Jacobi is also of such opinion, SBE., Xiv., P. 316, Fn. 3. Attana jo janati jo ya logam gaim ca jo jamai nagaim ca. Jo sasayam jana asasayam ca jatim ca maranam ca janovavayam. Aho'vi sattana viutthanam ca jo asavam janati samvaram ca. Dukkham ca jo janati nijjaram ca so bhasiumarihai kiriyavadam. SuKr. l. 12. 20-21. kriyavada is of 180 types and Akriyavada 84, ibid, l. ll. 119-121.

69.     M. i 93; ii. 31; 214 f.; A. i.  220.

70.   Jataka Stories, v. pp. 116. Compare to the story of four councillors in the Uttarapurana of Gunabhadra where the Karma has been accepted as a main cause for having birth in a high or low class. 46. 112-118.

71.   Savve puvvanibaddha du paccaya santi sammaditthassa. Uvaogappaogam bandhante kammabhavena. Samayasara, 173.

72.   Jataka Stories, V. p. 118; Jataka (Nagari), Vol. ii. v. 145-7. p. 53.

73.     M. ii. 31, 214 f; M. i. 93; Cf. A. i. 220.

74.   DS. 9.    75.   SKr. l. 12. 5. v. p. 215.

76.     A. i. 174.

77.   Tena ayasmanto panatipatino bhavissanti pubbekatahetu, adinnadayino musavadino abrhmacarino...pisun avaca...pubbekatam kho pana, bhikkhave, sarato pacchagacchatam na hoti chando va vayamo idam va karniyam idam ca akaraniyam ti. iti karaniyakaraniye kho pana saccato thetato anupalabbhiyamane mutthassatinam anarakhanam vihartam na hoti paccattam sahadhammiko samanavado......ibid., i. 174 f.

78.   Samayasara, 173.

79.     M. ii. 214.

80.     A. iii. 383 f. cp. DA. i. 162; S. iii. 210.; D. iii. 250 F.

81.   SS. 2. 6.    82.  4. 7.    83.  A. iii., 196 f.

84.   AA., ii. 559 says he was the Buddha's uncle (culapita) and a Sakyan raja. DPPN., S. V. Vappa.

85.   Gradual Sayings, Pt. ii., P. 207.

86.   (Kayena samvuta; vacaya samvuta, manasa samvuta tam ayatim papassa kammassa akaranam iti puranam kammanam tapasa vyantibhava.....).

87.     A. iii. 276-7.    88.  D. i. 57.

89.     M. ii., 214.    90.   A., iii. 276-7.

91.     M. i. 93.    92.   PK. 157-8.

93.     D. i. 23 FF.    94.   Sumangala Vil., i. 115.

95.   Ts., 112-2.    96.   TsP., P. 66.

97.   SuKr., 1. 2. 12. Vratti.

98.   Tulyam rupam yada grahyamatulyam naiva grahyat... Anunam dvyarupatve tada kim nopapadyate. Tatsamanyavisesatmarupatvatsarvavastunah. Tulyatulyas-varupatvadvirupa anavah smrtah. Samanam tatra yadrupam tadaksajnanagocaram. Ekakarmatojnana-manusvevopapadyate. Asmanam tu yadrupam yogipra-tyaksmisyate. Iti durmataya kecit kalpayanti samakulam__TS. 1980-83.

99.   NKC., p. 134; NVV., pt. l. p. 344; SVT., pt. pt 1. p. 158; PKM., yt. i. p. 25.

100.   Due hi rupe katham nama yukte ekasya vastunah.

Dve tada vastuni prapte aparaspararupatah.

Parasparatmatayamtu tadvairupyam viruddhate.

101.   See, chapter. v. of the book.

102.   TS., 2310.

103.   PV., 3. 296-7.

104.   NKC., p. 565; LT., 26-29; 64-65.

105.   PK., 80.

106.   ibid., 81.    107.   ibide., 86.

108.   Iv. 5. 24.    109.   Atthsalini, 1, 3. 16.

110.   TSP., p. 605, 2133-84. Cf. PK., 97 ff; DS., 19 ff.

111.   TS., 2567.    112.   ibid. 2548.

113.   Abhidharmakosa, 1.5.

114.   Atthasalini 160; Diologues of the Buddha, pt. i. p. 36. fn. 2. akasante' smin dravyani svayam va kasata ityakasam. Jivadini dravyani svaih paryayaih avyatirekena yasminnakasante. prakasante tadakasam svayam catmiyaparyayamaryadays akasata ityakasam. Avakasadanadva. 22. athava itaresam dravyanam avakasadanadakasamiti prsodaradisu nipatitah sabdah. Kundakunda defines akasa :-

Savvesim Jivanam sesanam tahaya puggalanam ca.

Jam dedi vivaramakhilam tam loe havadi ayasam.

115.   Iv., 5. 1., 21-22.

116.   Akasasyavagahah, TSu. V. 18. akasasya......savaya vatvam ghatadir ivopapannam savayavamakasam himavat-vindhyavaruddhavibhinnadesattvat,

117.   TBV., p. 641; Jaina Theory of Reality and Knowledge, p. 277. CF. PKM., p. 563; NKC., 245. 

CHAPTER III 

Jaina Ethics 

1. Himsa' nrtasteyabrahmaparigrahebhyo viratirvratam, TSu., 7. 1.

2. ibid.; 7. 4-8.

3.   Maitripromodakaruntamadhysthani ca sattvagunad-dhikaklisyamana' vinayesu, TSu., 7. 11.

4.   Thananga, 4.1 (tika). Udakapedalaputta (Sutrakrtanga, 7th Addhyana), Kalasavesiyaputta (Vyahapannati, 1st sataka), ect. are referred to in the Jaina Agamas who renounced Caturyamadharma of Parsvanatha and accepted the Pancamahavratas of Mahavira.

5.   Asibandhakaputto Gamani Nigantha-savado yena Bhagava tena upasankami......tam ca bhagava uvaca-Ko nu kho Gamani Nigantho-Nataputto savakanam dhammam deseti ti ? (Gamani uvaca)-evam kho bhante Nigantho Nataputto savakanam dhammam deseti-yo koci panam atipateti sabbo so apayiko nerayiko, yo koci adinnam adiyati sabbo so apayiko nepayiko, yo koci kamesu miccha carati sabbo so apayiko nerayiko, yo koci musa bhanati sabbo so apayiko nerayiko. yam bahulam yam bahulam viharati tena tenniyati, `ti.-S., iv. 317.

6. Pancahi bhikhave, dhammehi samannagato Nigantho ...devadhammiko yathabhatam nikhatte evam niraye. katamehi pancamehi ? panatipati hoti, adinnadayi hoti, abrahamacari hoti, musavadi hoti, suramera-ymajjapamadatthayi hoti. A. iii. 276-7.

7.   Krtakaritanumatairvakkayamanobhirisvate.

Autsargiki nivrttirvicitrarupapavadiki tvesa.

PSU. 76.

8. ime kho avuso Gotama, tinnam dandanam evam pativibhattanam evam pativisitthanam kayadanadam Nigantho Nataputto mahasavjjataram pannapeti papassa kammassa kiriyaya papassa kammassa pavattiya, no tatha vacidandam, no tatha manodandam ti. M. i. 372.

9. The danda is synonyamous with "duccarita" which means wrong behaviour in body, speech, and thought, and which afficts injures and brings to trouble and distress. SnA..63. ND. ii. 293, quoted by Horner in the Middle Length Sayings, ii. p. fn. 3.

10.   tam kim mannasi gahapati, idhassa Nigantho aba. dhiko duhito balahagilano sitodakapatikkhitto unho-dakapatisevi. so sitodakam alabhamano kalankar eyya. imassa pana, gahapati, Nigantho Nataputto kathupapattim pannapetti `ti......asancetanikam, bhante, Nigantho Nataputto no mahasavajjam pannapeti......, M. i. 377.

11.   PSU. 45-47.

12.   Himsayamaviramanam himsoparinamanamapi bhavati himsa.

Tasmat pramattayoge pranavyaparopanam nityam.

Suksmapi na khalu himsa paravastunibandbanam bhavati pumsah.

Himsayatananivrttih parinamavisuddhaye tadapi karya; PSU., 48-49.

13.   Pahuda.

14.   tena kho pana samayena sambahulam Nigantha Vesaliyam rathikaya rathikam...baha paggayha kandanti-ajja Sihena Senapatina thulam pasum badhitva Samanassa Gotamassa bhattam katam, tam Samano Gotamo janam uddissa katam mansam paribhunjati paticcakammam' ti. Mahavagga (Vinaya Pitaka), 237.

15.   M., i, 368 f : DPPN., s. v. Jivaka Sutta.

16.   DPPN., s. v. Devadatta.

17.     Na vina pranivighatanmamsasyotpattirisyate yasmat.

Mamsam bhajatastasmatprasaratyanivarita himsa.

Yadapi kila bhavati mamsam svayameva mrtasya mahisavrsabhadeh.

Tatrapi bhavati himsa tadasritanigodanirmathanat.

Amasvapi pakvasvapi vipacyamanasu mamsapesisu.

Satatyenotpadastajjatinam nigodanam.

Amam va pakvam va khadati yah sprsati va pisitapesim.

Sa nihanti satatatanicitam pindam bahujivakotinam.

PSu. 65-68.

18.   Madyam mamsam ksaudram pancodumbaraphalani yatnena.

Himsavyuparatikamairmoktavyani prathamameva. 61.

Yonirudumbarayugmam plaksanyagrodhappalaphalani.

Trasajivanam tasmattesam tadbhaksane himsa. ibid. 72.

19.   Atthi, Visakha, Nigantha nama Samanajatika. Te savakam evam samadapenti_ehi tvam ambho puriso, ye puratthimaya disaya pana param yojanasatam tesu dandam nikkhipahi, ye pacchimaya;. ye uttar-aya.........ye dakkhinaya......`ti. Iti ekaccanam pananam anud dayaya anukampaya samadapenti. -- A., i. 206.

20.   Digpracyadih tatra prasiddhairabhijnanairavadhim krtva niyamanam digvratih., SS., p. 176: also see TV., p. 547.

21.   PSU., 138.

22.   Sd., 5 3-4.

23.   Jaina Sutras, Uttaradhyayana, p. 414, v. 26. ff.

24.   Jaina Sutras, Pt. 11. SBE, Vol. 45., intro. xviii.

25.     D. iii. 9. F.

26.   Basham, A. C. History and doctrines of the Ajivikas, p. 104.

27.   SU., 141. also see, SD., 5. 12.

28.     M. i. 372 FF.

29.   Culadukkhandha Sutta,

30.     A. i, 206.    31.  A. i. 207    32.   ibid.

33.   Katyayana Srautasutra, 4. 15. 35.

34.   SD., 5. 34-35. cf. Bhagawati Sataka, 12. 1.

35.   Bhagawati Sataka, 8.5.

36.   Jain Sutras, SBE., Vol. 45., intro. P. xviii.

37.     S. D., 7.7.

In a Commentary on the Ratnakarandasravakacara, Acarya Prabhacandra also referred to this rule :- see, Bhagwana Mahavira aura Mahatma Buddha p. 207.

38.   A., iii. 277.

39.   Nigantha ekasataka ti vadati, Lohitabhijata nama, ibid., iii. 383 f. cf. Sumangala Vitasini. i. 162.

40.   Lati Samhita, 55.    41.  D. i. 166 cf. M. i. 77.

42.   Pravacanasara, 3. 15. According to A. N. Upadhye, this is this is the interpolated verse.

43.   Thanaga, p. 164. Cf. Mahavagga (N. H. Bhagavata's ed). pp. 108-109.

44.   Mulacara, 4. 155.

45.   ibid., 10.92.   46.   Brhatkalpakathabhasya, 2780.

47.   ibid. 492-93.   48.   Mulacara. comm. Val.i p. 133;

49.   Paiyasadda Mahannava, p. 358 :

50.   TSu., 9.22.    51.   Mulacara, 5. 107-109.

52.   ibid. 10. 17-18.   53.   Samavayauga, 27-1.

54.   See, Mulacara and Anagaradhrmamrta.

55.   ibid., Pindasuddhyadhikara.

56.   Pancaya mahavvayaem samidio panca jinavaruddittha.

Pancevindiyaroha chappi ya avasaya loco.

Accelakamanhanam khidisayanamadantahamsanam ceva.

Thiddibhoyaneyabhattam mulaguna atthavisa du. Mulacara, 1. 2-3.

57.     D. i. 49.

58.   Dasvaikalika, cu., 2.9 : Deo, S. V; History of Jaina Monachism., p. 145. f.

59.   Tsu. 6. 24.    60.  D. i. 49.

61.   Brhatakalpakathabhasya, vrtti on 2780, Vol. iii.

62.   ibid. Vrtti, on 1443, Vol. ii.

63.   Piyadhammo dadhadhammo samviggo'vajjabhiru parisuddho.

Sangahanuggakusalo sadadam sarakkhanajutto.

Gambhiro duddhariso midavadi appakoduhallo ya.

Cirapavvaido gihidattho ajjanam ganadharo hodi. --Mulacara, 4.183.-4.

64.   Tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiya bhikkhu vassam upggantva antaravassam carikam caranti. manussa tatheva njjhayanti khipyanti vipacenti-"katham hi nama samana sakyaputttya hemantam pi gimham pi vassam carikam carissanti, haritani tinani samma-ddanta, ekindriyam j vam vihethenta, bahu khuddake pane angnghetam apadenta. Ime hi nama annstitthiya durakkl atadhamma vassavasam alliyissanti sankasayisenanti...V, i. 137 F.

65.   Mulacara, 3. 35-36.

66.   ibid., 10. 18.

67.   V., i. 138.    68.  p. 308 b.

69.   Accellakam loco vosattasarirada ya padilihanam

Eso hu lingakappo caduvvidho hodi nayabbo.--Mulicara, 10-17

70.   MA., 1. 423; DPPN., sv. Nigantha; Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms, p. 428.

71.   Pravacanasara, 3. 3-5, 21; Jain, C. R., Sanyasadharam, pp. 45-46; Deo, s. v; History of Jaina monachism p. 341.

72.   Vikare vidusam dueso navikaranuvartane.

Tannagrative pi sagotthe no Nama-dusesa-kalmasah.

-upasakadhyayana., 131. p. 35.

73.   Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, p. 175. Also see Barua, B. M; A History of Pre-Buddhistic Indian Philosophy,  p. 297. Basham. A. C.; History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas, pp. 96, 107.

74.     V. v. 19-21, 39-40.

75.   DhpA., Vol. l. pt. 11., 309.    76.   ibid. iii. 489.

77.   DhPA., Vol. l. pt. ii. pp. 400; Buddhist Legend, Vol. 29. p. 70 ff.

78.   Buddhist Legend, Vol. 29. pp. 74.

79.     D. i. 166.    80.  M. i. 77.

81.   ibid. i. 238.

82.   Uggama uppadana esanam ca samjojanam pamanam ca.

Ingaladhuma karana atthaviha pindasuddhi du. Mulacara, 6.2.

83.   Jacobi, uttaradhyyana, intro. p. xxxi.

84.   Vrahatkalpabhasya. Vol. l. 532 ff.; Jitkalpa, 35., Bhasya, 1087-1719.

85.   Desatti ya savvatti ya duvinam puna abhihadam viyanahi.

Acinnamanacinnam desavihadam have duviham. --Mulacara. 6. 19.

86.   Pindaniryukti, 219-242.

87.   Javadiyam uddeso pasandotti ya have samuddeso. Samanotti ya adeso nigganthotti ya have samadeso. Mulacara, 6. 7; Acaranga, ll. 1.6.8. (p. 104). Dasavai. 5.1.55.

88.   Cf. Pindaniryukti, 271-77; 279-84.

89.   Mulacara, 6. 10. 11; also see, Dsv., 5. i. 31.

90.   Cf. Pindaniryukti, 285-91; 303-15.

91.   Mulacara, 6. 15, 17.    92.   ibid. 6. 20.

93.   Dasvai. 5. 40-41.    94.   ibid. 5. 42-3.

95.   Mulacara, 6.50, 52; also see, Dasavaikalika, 5. i. 43. 5-46.

96.   Asanam jadi va panam khajjam bhojam ca lijja pejjam va. Padilehiuna suddham bhunjati panipattesu. Mulacara, 9. 54; 1. 34.

97.   Upasakadhyyana, 133-4. p. 35.

98.   Addhamasanassa savvim janassa udarassa tadiyamudayena. Vau samcaranattham cautthamavasesaye bhikkhu. --Mulacara, 6. 72; also see, ibid, 5. 153.

99.   See, for detail, History of Jaina Monachism, p. 196. f.

100.   Avasyaka Nirukti, 766 ff. Pinda Niryukti, 427.

101.   See, Deo, s. v. History of Jaina Moncism, p. 298, Pinda., Ni, 494-99.

102.   Nisiha Curni, 4. p. 375. Brhat Kalpakatha Bhasya,, Vol. III. 2681.

103.   JA., Vol. 13. No. 2. p. 2.

104.   ibid., Vol. 12-13, No. 2, p. 2, 68. Such magical practices can also be seen in teh Agamas. See, History of Jaina Monachism, p. 420.

105.   Book of Discipline, Vol. 5. p. 151.

106.    D. i. p. 57; M., i. 377.

107.   Yogasastra, 2.30

108.   Jaina Sntras, introduction.

109.   Rockhill, the life of the Buddha, p. 99 f. History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas, Basham, A. C.; p. 21. f.

110.   History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas, p. 23.

111.   Bahirdha-maithunam parigrahavisesah adanam ca parigrahah tayordvandvaikatvamathava adiyat ityadinam parigrahyam vastutacca dharmopakaranamapi bhavatityat aha, bahistat dharmopakaranad bahiryaditi, iha ca maithunam parigrahe `ntarbhavati, Thananga, 4. 1. Tika.

112.   Abhayarajakumarasutta.

113.   Dharmartham putrakamasya svadaresvadhikatinah. Rtukale vidhanena dosastatra na vidyate. Sukr. 3. 4. 9-13, V. p. 98. At the same place, it is said-Sadanusthanat parsve tisthantiti parsvasthah (Pasattha), svayuthya va parsvasthavasannakusiladayah striparisahaparajitah. te vadanti--

Priyadarsanamevastu, kimanyairdarsanantaraih.

Prapyate yena nirvanam, saragenapi cetasa.

--ibid., 3. 4. 9. V. p. 98;

114.   Sukr, V. 102, p. 177; 102. Nir. vrtti.

115.   Pancamahavvaya pannatta-tam jaha-savvao pana-tipata sayvao veramanam, savvao musavayao veramanam, savvao adinnadanao veramanam, savvao mehunao veramanam, savvao pariggahao veramanam, Samavayanga, 5. 2.

116.   Abhayarajakumarasutta.

117.   Cf. pesunnahasakakkasaparanindappappasamsavi-kahadi.

Vajjita saparahiyam bhasasamidi have kahanam.

--Mulacara, 1. 12.

118.   Ekamidaham, Mahanama, samayam Rajagahe vihirami Gajjhakute pabbate, Tena kho pana samayena sambahula Nigantha Isigili.....asanapatikkhitta, opakkamika, dukkha tibba khara katuka vedana vedayanti.....M., i. 93; cf. M., oo. 31. 214 f/

119.   Mulacara, comm. pt. l. p. 491.

120.   Viyatiyacaukkamase loco ukkasamajjhimajahanno.

Sapadikkamane divase uvavaseneva kayavve. Mulacara, i. 20.

121.   M., i. 77.    122.   Mulacara, i. 36.    123.   M., i. 77.

124.   Manavacakayapautti bhikkhu savajjakajjasamjutta.

Khippam nivarayanto tihaim du gutto havadi eso.

--Mulacara, 5. 134

125.    M. i. 372 f.

126.   See for the place and nature of Meditation in Jainism, Studies in Jaina Philosophy by Tatiya. p. 261 f.

127.   TSu., 9. 28: Pare moksahetuh, ibid., 9. 29.

128.   Dhyana Sataka, 30-34. 

CHAPTER IV 

Jaina Epistemology 

1. Pratyaksa Pramana (Direct Knowledge) 

1. Ete vivada samanesu jata, Sn. 4. 8. 63.

2. Ye kecime Brahmana vadasila, ibid, 2. 14. 162.

3. Ye kecime Titthiya vadasila, Ajivika va yadi va Nigantha, ibid., 2. 14. 161.

4. ibid. 2. 14. 162.    5.   D. i. 16.

6. na takkika sujjhanti, Udana, 6. 10. 23.    7.   A. i. 189.

8. AA. ii. 305.    9.   Tatparoksam, TSu. 1. 10.

10.   Thanangasutra, 309-310; History of Indian Logic, p. 162. Caraka Samhita, 3. 8. 6. 25.

12.   Sn. 4. 8. 59, 60. 62; 411. 94.    13.   ibid. 4. 8. 60-1.

14.   ibid. ii. 76.    15.   Nyaya Sutra, 4. 2. 50-9

16.   Vadanyaya, p. 1.    17.   NV. 2. 384.

18.   Astasati Astasahasri, p. 87.

19.   Bhasappavadako, panditavado, sadhu samma to bahi-janassa, M. i. 227.

20.   ibid. 23. 4. f.    21.   ibid. 312.

22.     S. iv. 323 ff    23.   ibid i. 176; ii. 122.

24.     M. i. 393; S. iv. 323.    25.   NV. 2. 384.

26.     D. i. 162    27.  D. i. 163 ff.

28.     M. i. 403 ff.    29.   SV. 5, 2; TSV. 380.

30.   M., 11. 211; Jayatilleke, R. N. Early Buddhist theory of Knowledge, p. 171.

31.   Nigantho, abuso, Nataputto sabbannu sabbadassavi aparisesam jnanadassanam patijanati, cara to...sami-tam jnanadassanam paccupatthitam. M., i. 92-3' A., i. 220-221.

32.   Samyagdarsana jnanacaritrani moksamargah, TSu, 1. 1

33.   TSu. 1. 4.    34.  A. iV. 429.

35.   Cillaksana evatma, TSP. P. 118, Jivo upayogamao... DS. 2; T V. 2. 8.

36.   TV. 1. 6. Cf. Dhavala Tika, P, 149.    37.   Niyamasara, 60, 161-9.

38.   Dhavala, 1. 1. 4; ST. P. 2. 1.    39.  1. 1. 4.

40.   STP. 2. 1.    41.  S V T. intro. (Hindi), p. 40.

42.   SS. l. 15.    43.  S T P T. p. 458.

44.   PMu.6. 1.    45.   Pramananaya Tattvaloka, 6. 25.

46.   Samam janadi passadi viharaditti, Prakrti Anuyoga; Janamane evam ca nam viharai, Acaranga Sutra.

47.   STP. 11; VBH. 3089-3135, Studies in Jaina Philosophy, p 75 ff.

48.   NS. 159;    49.   TSu. 2. 9:

50.   SS. 2. 9.    51.   Astasa, 101.

52.   Astasahasri.    53.   LT. l. 3, SVT. 1. 3, see intro. p. 97.

54.   Pramanamavisamvadi jnanamanadhi...Astasati-Astasahasri, p. 175.

55.   Jam pardo Vinnanam tam tu parokkhati bhanidama-tthesu. Jam kevalenanadam havadi hu jivena paccakkham. PS., 58

56.   aksnoti vyapnoti janatityaksa atma, SS., P. 59; PMu., 6. 1

57.   Adyeparoksam, TSu, 1. 1l : Pratyaksamanyat. ibid., 1. 11

58.   LT. 4; ViBh. 95.    59.  1. 13.

60.   Pratyakasamanyat, 1. 12.    61.   NA. 1.

62.   Astasati Astasahasri, p. 175; Pramana Mimamsa.

63.   TSu 1. 15.    64.   Pravacanasata, 23.4;

65.   VSu. 3. 18. NSu. 1. 1. 4; SK. 5. SSu. 1. 89: Yogabhasya, 1. 7, JSu. 1. 1. 4; Carakasamhita, 11. 20; See, An Advanced Studies in Indian Logic and Metaphysics.

66.   YSu. 3. 54; SK. 64.    67.   Vsu. 9. 1; 13-15.

68.     N. B. 1. 11,    69.   Tanstravartika, p. 240.

70.   Ts. 1983.    71.   PSg.1.3; NP. p. 7; N B. 1.4.

72.   SV. 1. 39.    73.   PKM. 1. 3.

74.   TS. 1983.    75.   ibid.

76.   TSu. 2. 9.    77. Astasati Astasahsri, p. 275.

78.   Adye paroksam, Pratyaksamanyat, TSu. 1. ll. 12.

79.   Pratyaksam visadam jnanam mukyasamvyavaharatah.

Paroksam sesavijnanam pramane iti sangrahah.

80.   TS. 1214; PSg. p. 8.

81.   TSP. p. 394; NKC. p. 46. NVV. p. 13.

82.   TSP. p. 379, ka. 1265.    83.   ST. p. 457.

84.   TSu. 1. 15; LT. 6    85.   TSP. p. 379.

86.   Visayavisayisannipatasamanantaramadyam grahanamavagrahah, TV. 1. 15. l.

87.   TSP. p. 379.    88-89.   ibid. p. 389.

90.     1. 1. 4.

91.   NA. p. 43; Tatparyavrattitika, p. 145; NM. p. 100.

92.   PSg. 1. 37.    93.   TS. 1224.

94.   ibid. 1270.    95.   TS. 1274-6.

96.   Bhedo vaisistamuktam hi na visesanasangatih.

Bhinnamityapi tadvaca nanuviddham pratiyate, ibid., 1272.

97.   ibid. 1269.    98.   Astasati Astasahasri, p. 175.

99.   NV. 1. 158; Also see, SV. 1. 4; TSV. p. 185; LT. 1. 3.

100.   PKM. p. 8; NKC. p. 47.

101.   SVT. p. 13.

102.   Astasahasri, p. 75.    103.   TS. 1273.

104.   Viseatmatirekena naparam bhedalaksanam.

Tadrupasparsane tesu grahanam kathamucyate.

Tadrupasparsane capi bhedantaravibheditah.

Grahita iti vijnanam praptamesu vikalpakah. Ts. 1280-1

105.   Vibhanga. 323

106.   TS. 1981-83.

107.   SM. P. 111-2.; notes. p. 196.

108.   idid. notes. p. 195.

109.   Dve hi rupam katham nama yukte ekasya vastunah.

Adve tada vastuni prapte aparaspararupatah.

Parasparatatayam tu ta dyairupyam viruddhyate.

Visesascopalabhyeta caksuradibhirindriyaih. TS. 1984-5.

110.    Na camunyarthadusanani syadvadadinam vidyate, SM., p. 111.

111.   TSu. 1. 29; SThSu 71.    112.   TSu. 22.

113.   TSu. 1. 27.    114.   NSu. 16.

115.   TSu 1. 25.    116.   SS. 1. 24.

117.   TV. 1. 23.    118.   ViBH. 814.

119.   Niscayadvatrimsika, 17, quoted from Jnanavinduprakrana by Tatiya in Studies in Jaina Philosophy, p. 69, fn. 3. bhava jivadaya jivaguna cedana ya uvaogo. PKS. 16.

120.   Upaoge khalu duviho nanena ya dansnena samjutto. PKS. 40; DS. 4

121.   Appanam vinu nanam nanam vinu appago e sandoho. Tamhu saparapayasam nanam taha damasnam hodi. NS. 170.

122.   Bahyabhyantarehetudvayasannidhaneyathasambhava-mupala bdhuscaitanyanuvidhayi parinanah. TV. 2.B.

123.    Je egam janai te sabham Janai, je sebham janai te egam, janai, pravacanasara. Also sse, ASu. 1. 3. 4 : ViBh. 320.

124.   Jam takkaliyamidaram Janadi Jugavam samantado sabbam...PS. 1. 47-9.

125.   idha, sandhaka, okacco sattha sabbannu cabbadaesavi aparisosam nandassanam patijanati--carato ca me titthato ca suttassa ca jagrassa ca setatam samitam nanadassanam paccup atthitam ti. so ahuannampi agarampi pavisati, pindam pi na labhati, kukkuro pi dasati, candena pi hatthina samagacchati, candena pi assena samagacchati, candena pi gonena samagacchati, itthiya pi purisassa pi namam pi gottam pi pucchati, gamassa pi nigamassa pi namam pi maggam pi pucchati, `m. i. 529

126.   (ekamihaham mahanama samayam rajagahe viharami gijhakute pabbate. tena kho pana samayena Nigantha.. katuka vedana vedayanti...Nigantho Nataputto sabbannu sabbadassavi...kim pana tumhe. no hidam. evam sante avuso Nigantha, ye loke luddda lohitapanino kururakammanta manussesu paccajata te Niganthesu pabbajanti `ti).

127.    M. ii. 31; M. Sayings. ii. p. 228, i. 250.

128.   Buddhist Legend (Dhammapadatthakatha), Vol. 29. p. 74 ff.

129.    M. ii. 31, 214 ff; M. i. 92f; A. i. 220; A. iii 74; S. iv. 398.

130.   tasmadanustheyagatam jnanamasyavicaryatam. kitasankhyaparijnane tasya nah kvopayujyate. heyo-padeyatattvasya sabhyupayasya vedakah yah pramanamasaviste na tu sarvasya vedakah. duram pasyatu va ma va tattvamintnmtu pasya tu. pramanm duradursi Cedehi grdhranupasmahe. 2. 31-33.

131.   (tato'sya vitaragatve sarvarthajnanasambhavah. samahitasya sakalam cakastiti viniscitam. sarvesam vitaraganametat kasmanna vidyate. ragadikanayamatre hi tairyatnasya pravartanat. punah kalantare tesam sarvajnagunaraginam. alpayatnena sarvajnatvasiddhi-ravarita.--

132.   Bhagavati sutra, 9.32.    133.   Ps. 1. 47-49

134.   suksmantaritadurarthah pratyaksah kasyacidyatha. Anumeyatvato' gnyadiriti sarvajnasamsthitih. AM. 5.

135.   Jayadhavala tika.

136.   Dharmottara Pradipa, p. 245, 248.

137.   yadi suksme vyavahito va Vastuni Buddhiratyanta-parokse na syatkatham tarhi jyotirjnanavisamvadah ? jyotirjnanamapi hi sarvajnapravartitameva, etasma-davisamvada......

Aklankenapi :--

Dino jyotirjnanatsarvajatvasiddhih. Taduktam.

Dhiratyantaparokserthe na cetpumsam kutah punah.

Jyotirjnanavisamvadah srutatvaccetsadhanantaram. --SVT. p. 526;

quoted by Dharmottar in the Dharmottara Pradipa, p. 245, 248 : compare-NV. 414; Sastravartasamuccaya, 2. 3.

138.   Jnana syatisayat sidhyedvibhutvam parimanvat.

139.   ibid. 8. 3.    140.   ibid. 8. 10-14.

141.   ibid. 8. 12-18.    142.   SV. 8. 6.

143.    PV A. 4. 91.    144.   ibid. 8. 6-7.

145.   NV. 37-40.    146.   NVV. 50-52.

147.   See my article "The Conception of Omniscience in Buddhism" appeared in VSMP 1968. Also see the Appendix. III.

148.   Tattvavaisaradi, 1. 11.    149.   Anu. 160.

150.   PVM. 2. 5.    151.   SV. 3. 2.

152.   TS. 1298.    153.   PVM. 2. 5.

154.   Tatparyavrttitika, p. 21.; Kandali, p. 61; NM. 22, etc.

155.   Prakarana Panjika, p. 42-3; Vrhati Pa. p. 103; Sastradipika, p. 124.

156.   Hetubindutika.    157.   TSV. 1. 10. 78; PKM. p. 16.

158.   PM. p. 4-5.    159.   PMu. 3. 5.; Pramanapariksa, p. 60.

160.   SV. 227.

161.   Nyaya Vartika Tatparya Tika, d. 139.

162.   PV. 3. 502-7.    163.   LT. 10. 19. 21.

164.   PM. 3. 11; SVT. intro.

165.   Sabarabhasya, 9. 1. 1.

166.   TSu Bh. 1. 15.    167.   PV. p. 7.

168.   LT. 11.    169.   SV. 3. 8. 9; Lt. 12.

170.   Astasati Astasahasri, p. 236.

171.   NKC. pp.724.

172.   See in detail for this subject "The Advanced Studies in Indian Logic and Metaphysics" and SVT. introduction, etc.

173.   NVV. pt. 1l.. p. l.    174.   NV. 170.

175.   Sahakramabhavaniyamo `vinabhavah, PM. 3. 16.

176.   SV. 6. 16.    177.   NV. 21.

178.   PM. 3. 22.    179.   Nyayasutra, 1. 1. 32.

180.   SK. (Mathuravrtti), p. 5.

181.   Prakarana Panjika, p. 83-5.

182.   Nyaya Pravesa, pp. 1.    183.   Vadanyaya, p. 61.

184.   PV. 128.    185.   Sv. 6. 17;

186.   PMu. 33-40.

187.   Cetanastaravah iti sadhye sarvatvagapaharane maranam prativadyasiddham vijnanenadvatiyayurnirodhala-ksanasya maranasyanenabhyupagamat, tasya ca taru-svasambhavat; NB., 59.

188.   Digambarastu sadhyena vyaptamavyaptam va maranam......p. 190-1.

189.   Candratvenapadistannacandrah sasalanchanah.

Iti dvilaksano heturayam capara ucyate. etc. TS., 1372-1379.

190.   TSP. 1375.    191.   Advanced Studies in Indian Logic and Metapaysics, p. 86.

192.   PMu. 3. 37-40.    193.   Pramana Mimamsa.

194.   RVS. p. 548.    195.   TS. 1395.

196.   ibid. 1397.    197.   ibid. 1398-1429.

198.   Nyayavatara Vartika Vrtti, Prastavana, p. 76-8.

199.   Prasastapadabhasya, p. 200, Vaisesikasutra, p. 203.

200.    SK (Matharavrtti), 5.    201.   NP. 1; NB. 2-5; H B. P. 4; PS. 1362.

202.   Tatparyatika, 1. 1. 5; NM. p. 110.    203.   SV. 6. 2.

204.   Dharmottar-pradipa, p. 35

205.   Patrasvamimatamasankate : --

Anyatha' nupapannatve nanudrasta scahetuta.

Nasati tryamsakasyapi tasmatklibastrilaksanah.

Anya thanupapannatvam yasyasau heturisyate.

Ekalaksanakah so rthasheturlaksanako na va.

206.   Tena tadvisayatrilaksanakaderthanam uttarabhasyam yatah krtam, SVT. p. 371.

207.   Mahima sa Patrakesariguroh param bhavati yasya bhaktyasit. Padmavatisahaya trilaksanakadarthanam kartum.

--Jaina Silalekha Sangrah, Pra. Le. 54.

208.   TS. 1364-5.    209.   ibid. 1370.

210.   TSP. p. 406, Ka. 1371.    211.   TS. 1380-1.

212.   ibid. 1386-8.    213.   ibid. 1389.

214.   ibid. 1395-1429.    215.   ibid. 1416.

216.   NKC. p. 440; SVT. 6. 16.    217. H B T A. p. 290.

218.   HBT. p. 37.    219.   Astasahasri, p. 3. 

CHAPTER V 

Anekantavada 

1. The Theory Of Anekantavada 

1. This classification excludes the less important conceptions such as hetuvada, ahetuvada, bhavavada, abhavavada, daitavada purusarthavada, and so on. See in detail, Darsana aura cintana and Jaina theory of reality and knowledge.

2.   Utpadavyayadhrauvyayuktam sat, Tsu 5. 30, Gunapa-rayayavaddravyam, TSu, 5. 38.

Kumarilabhatta also maintains the nature of reality to be of three-fold character. His view is almost identical with that of Jaina philosophy (see Sloka-vartika Karika, 21-22. But the difference between the views of Kumarila and Jainas is that the former adheres to a "middle position" (madhyasthata) between the two extremes of the bheda (anya) and the abheda (ananya), each of which (ekantikam) is characterised as fallacious (mrsa), while the latter recognizes them to a certain extent as right and not fallacious. Whitehead (PrR. p. 318), Frauwallner and Kant (The Philosophy of Kant Explained, by John Watson, Glasgow, 1908, p. 199) are also of about the same view. Hegel, (Hegel's science of Logic, tr. by W. H. Johnson and L. G. Strutheres 1929, London, Vol. 1. p. 195), Bradley (Principles of Logic, by F. H. Bradley, Oxford, 1940, Vol. 11. p. 487), Bosanquet (The essentials of Logic, by B. Bosanquent, London, 1903, p. 134) too are of the close views to the Jaina view of reality. See in detail, Jaina theories of reality and knowledge, pp. 131.

3. See, Jaina Theories of Reality and Knowledge, pp. 258.

4. Atho khalu davvamao davvani gunappagani bhanidani. PS., 119

5.   Pravacanasara, Jayasena's commentary, p. 121.

6. STP. 2. 9-14; TV. pt. I, p. 428.    7.   TV. 5. 37, 2-4.

8. NKC. p. 363.

9. Avuso tvam mama accayena Sassatam ti, ganhapesi. Evam dve pi jane eka laddhike akatva bahu-nana-niharena ugganhapetva kalam akasi. Te tassa sarira-kiccam katva sannipatita annahi annam pucchimsu-"kass' avuso acariyo saram acikkhi ?" ti "Sassatam" ti. Aparo tam patibahetva "Mahyam saram acikkhi ti" aha. Evam sabbe : Mahyam saram acikkhi,..... Da., ii. 906-7. MA., ii. 831.

10.   A., ii. 46; Millinda Panha, iv. 2. 5. Also see, A., i. 197.

11. M., ii. 46.

12.   Vibhajjavayam ca vyagarejee, Sutrakrtanga, 1. 14. 22.

13.   Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, p. 292.

14.     D. i. 191.    15.   HBT. p. 284.

16. PVS. p. 333; HBT. p. 369.

17.     na samanyatmanodeti na vyetivyaktamanvayat..... -AM., 59-61. quoted in PVST., by karnakagomin, p. 333; Durvekamisra quotes one more karika in the Hetubindutikaloka p. 371.

Na nasena vina soko notpadena vina dhrtih.

Sthitya vina na madhyasthyam tasmat vastu trayatmakam.

18.   pravacanasara, 17-18.

19.   Lt., 30; PM., p. 24.

20.   Dravyasabdena dravati paryayena gacchati ti p. 337.

21.   Tattvasangrah, Atmapariksa.

22.   HBT. p: 28.

23.   Prameyaratnmala, p. 4, also see, the VIIIth chapter of the Tattvasangraha).

24.   See, TS., 350-546. Also see, HBT., p. 213. The Syadvada-Manjari (p. 19) refers to a stanza in this respect : Yo yatraiva sa tatraiva yo yadaiva tadaiva sah. Na desakalayorvyaptirbhavanamiha vidyate.

25.   Purvam nasvaracchaktatkaryam kinnavinasvarat.

Karyotpattiviruddhyeta na vai karanasattataya.

Yad yada karyamutipitsu tattadottpadanatmakam.

Karanam karyabhedena na bhinnam ksanikam yatha.

--SV., 3 11-12. Also see, NKC., p. 379. etc. Jaina Theories and reality of knowledge.

26.   HBTA. p. 373. 4

27.   Tanna tavadaksaniko bhavah karyam kartum saknoti, tasya kramayaugapadyabhyamarthakriyavirodhat napi ksaniko bhavah karyam prabhavati. tathahi kim ksaniko bhavah svasattakale karyakaranasvabhave' thanyada. yadi prathamavikalpastada tadaiva kuryat. svasattaksane ca karyakrtausaivam jagadekalaksanavarti prapnoti. tathahi karanam svasattaksana eva yat karyamakrta tadapyanyasya karanamiti tadapi tadaiva svakaryam kuryat.....ibid. p. 374.

28.   Tarhi karyamapi tadaivotpadyeta'nyada tatkalam. parihrtya karyotapattirvirudhyeta.....ibid.

29.   ibid. p. 374.    30.   TS., intro. p. 1.

31.   Uttaradhyayana, 20-15; 23. 28; 26. 9; 28. 16; 28. 19. Bhagavatisutra, 73. 209; Dasvaikalikasutra, 4, etc.

32.   TS. 352.    33. ibid. 336-349.

34.   Jaina Theory of Reality of Knowledge. p. 173.

35.   Nanvanekatmakam vastu yatha mecakratnavat.

Prakrtyaiva sadadinam ko virodhastatha sati.

-TS., 1709.

36.   Tasu tasu hyavasthasu sa evayam nara iti anuvrtti-pratyayahetor naratvajaterurdhvatasamanyasabdabh-ilApyastasu cavasthasu...... HBTA. p. 343. CF. Para-paravivartavyapi dravyam urdhvata mrdiva sthasadisu, PM. 4.5 ekasmin dravye kramabhavinah parinamaih paryayah atmani harsavisadivat, PM. 4. 8. HBTA, p. 343; PM., 4.5.

37.   Tiryaksamanyavyavrttipratyayaheto.....

HBTA., p. 343. Cf.

Sadrasaparinamastiryak khandamundadisu gotvavat. PM., 4. 4.

38.   PM., 4. 9.

39.   PVST. p. 333; HBTA. p. 369. etc.

40.   HBT. p. 98.

41.   Desakalasvabhavanamabhedadekatocyate.........

Sankhyalaksanasanjnarthabhedat bhedastu varnyate.

Rupadayo ghatascetai sankhyasamjna vibhedita.

Karyanuvrttivyavrtti laksanarthavibhedita.

Dravyaparyayayorevam naikantena `visesavat.

dravyam paryayarupena visesam yati cet svayam.

--TS., 313-315; also see, HBT., pp. 98.

42.   kincidvivaksitam vastughatadi,......

yadi ghatadirbhavah patadina bhavantarenatulyah syat-tato yadi vyavrttah syat, tada khapuspanna tasya visesah syat, sarvatha vastvantaradvyavrttavat, na ca vastvantaradvyavrttasyanyagatih sambhavati, kha-puspatam muktva. tasmattasya vastunah khapuspat-ulyatvamabhyupagacchata bhavantaratulyatvam va-stutvam nama samanyamabhyupagantavyamiti sidd-him samanyatmakam     --TSP., p. 487.

43.   TSP. P. 487.    44.   TS. 1712-13.

45.   ibid. 1714-16.    46.   ibid 1718-19.

47.   ibid. 1720-21.    48.   Tarkabhasa, pt. T. p. 5

49.   PV., 3. 237.

50.   Partantrayam hi sambandhah siddhe ka paratantrata.

Tasmat sarvasya bhavasy sambandho nasti tattvatah.

--quoted in TV., p. 146, NKC. 305.

51.   Rupasleso hi sambandhah dvitve sa ca katham bhavet.

Tasmat prakrtibhinnanam sambandho nasti tattvatah.

--quoted in the TSV., p. 148. cf. NKC., p. 306; PKM., p. 149.

52.   Jaina Thories of Reality and Knowledge. p. 232. f.

53.   Dravyaksetrakalabhavakrta hi pratyasattih ekatva-parinatisvabhava paratantryaparinama sambandho' rthanamabhipreto Jainaih...rupasleso hi. NKC., p. 307.

54.   NKC., p. 369; Jaina Theories of reality and knowledge, p. 283. 

2. The Theory of Nayavada 

55.   Nayo jnatirabhiparayah, LT., 55. Anirakrtapratipakso vastvamsagrahi jnaturabhiprayo nayah. PKM. p. 676.

56.   Sadeva sat syat saditi tridhartho,

miyet durnitinayapramanaih, SM., 28.

57.   See. TV. 1. 33; Epitom of Jainism.

58.     A. ii. 191-3.

59.   Nayena neti, S. ii. 58; anayena nayati dummedho, J. iv. 241.

60.   Nayam nayati medhavi, J. iv. 241.

61.   Dve satye samupasritya buddhanam dharmadesana.

Lokasamvrtisatyam ca satyam paramarthatah.

--MK Arya. 8.

62.     A. iii. 178; Netti. 21. J. iv. 241.

63.   Ns., 897, 904, 911. cf. Milinda Panha, 160.

64.   Sn. 68, 219.

65.   Dve'me Tathagatam Abbhacikkhanti Katamam dve ? Yo ca Neyyattham suttantam nitattho suttanto ti dipeti; yo ca nitattham suttantam nevyattho suttanto ti dipeti,    A., i. 60.

66.   AA., i. 95; Cf. Kathavatthu, Atthakatha, 34.

67.   Sn. 884.    68.  A. ii. 41; v. 29. 

The Theory of Syadvada 

69.     A History of Indian Philosophy, Vol. l. p. 141.

70.   SV. p. 1027.

71.   Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, Fascicule : A-Aca-P, p. 142.

72.   Studies in Jaina Philosophy, p. 22.

73.   PKM. 526.

74.   Sarvamasti svarupena pararupena nasti ca.

Anyatha sarvasattvam syat svarupasyapyasambhavah.

--SM., 14.

75.   Vastvasankarasiddhisca tatpramanyam samasrita.

Ksiradadhyadi yannasti pragabhavah sa ucyate

NKC., p. 467.

76.   PKS., 9.

77.   Nastita payaso dadhai pradhvamsabhavalaksanam, --NKC., p. 467.

78.   Gavi yo' svadyabhavastu so' nyonyabhava ucyate. NKC., Vol. ll. p. 467.

79.   ibid., Vol. ll. p. 467; Jaina theories of Reality and knowledge, p. 350.

80.   Jaina Theories of Reality and Knowledge, p. 363.

81.   Rgveda, x. 129, Tr. Macdonell, A Vedic Reader for Students. p. 207-8.

82.   Vi., 2. 1-8

83.   Tup. 2. 7; Also see the CHU p. 3. 19. 1.

84.   MUp. 2. 2. 1.    85.   ChUp. 3. 19. 1.

86.   Sankhyaparavacanabhasya, p. 3.

87.   Nyayabhasya, 2. 1. 18.

88.   Vedantasara, p. 25.

89.   Santi...eke samanabrahmana amaravikkhepika, tattha tattha panham puttha samana vacavikkhepam apajjanti amaravikkhepam catuhi vatthuni, D., 1. 24.

90.   DA. 1. 115.

91.   Idha...ekacco samano va brahmano va idam kusalam ti yathabhutam nappajanati, idam akusalam ti yatha-bhutam nappajanati. Tassa evam hoti. Aham kho idam kusalam ti yathabhutam nappajanami, idam akusalam ti yathabhutam nappajanami. Ahan c' eva kho pana idam ti yathabhutam appajanato, idam. kusalam ti yathabhutam appajanato idam. knsalam ti va vyakareyyam, idam, akusalam ti va vyakareyyam, tattha me assa chando va rago va doso va patigho va tam mam assa musa. Yam mam' assa musa so mam'assa vighato. Yo mam'assa vighato so mam'assa antarayo ti. Iti so musavadabhaya musavadapari-jeguccha n'ev idam kusalam ti vyakaroti na pana idam akusalam ti vyakaroti, tattha tattha panham puttho samano vaca vikkhepam apajjati amaravikkhe-pam : Evam ti pi me no. Tatha ti pi me no. Annatha ti pi me no. No ti pi me no. No no ti pi me no ti D., i. 24-5.

92.   DA., i. 155.

93.   idha, bhikhave, ekacco samano va brahmano va mando hoti momuho. So mandatta momuhatta tattha tattha panham puttho samano vacavikkhepam apajjati amaravikkhepam-Atthi paro loko ti...evam ti pi me no, ti. tatha ti pi me no, annatha ti pi me no, no no ti pi me no ti. Natthi paro loko ti pe...atthi ca natthi ca paro loko pi...nevatthi na natthi paro loko pi.: atthi satta opapatika pi, natthi satta opapatika, nevatthi na natthi satta opapatika; atthi sukatadu-kkhatanam kammanam phalam vipako, natthi... vipako, atthi ca natthi...vipako, nevatthi na natthi... vipako. Hoti tathagato param marana, na hoti... maranam, neva hoti na na hoti...marana. D. 1. 27.

94.   D., i 58-59.

95.   DA., i. 115; see, Jaytilleke, Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, p. 136.

96.   Keith writes-he (sanjaya) seems as an agnostic to have been the first to formulate the four possibilities of existence, non-existence, both and neither..." Buddhist Philosophy, p. 303 : Raju, P. T. also supports this view stating "the principle seems to have been first used by Sanjaya"--an article "The Principle of Four Cornered Negation in Indian Philosophy."

97.   Buddhism and Culture, ed. Susuma Yamaguchi, Kyoto, 1960 p. 71.

98.   Asiyasayam Kriyanam Akriyavaena hoi culasie. Annaniya sattatthi veniyana ca vattisa. Sukr. Vo. I. fol. 212.

99.   Ibid. 1. 3. 11-34; Vrtti, p. 45-6; Vavisam suttaim tikanaiyaim terasia sutta parivadie, Samavayanga 22.4.

100.   Tatha te eve Gosala-pravarttita Ajivakah pasandinas Trairasika ucyante, yatas te sarvam vastu tryatmakam icchanti tad yatha jivo jivajivas ca loko' loko loka-lokasca, sadasat sadasat. Naya-cintayam drvya-stikam paryayastikam ubhayastikam ca, Tatas tribhi rasibhis caranti iti Trairasikah Nandi comm., fol. 113, quoted by Weber Verzeichniss, ii, p. 685. Cf. Samavaya comm., fal. 129. History and doctrines of the Ajivikas. p. 275.

101.   Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, p. 156.

102.    Na ya vi panne parihasakujja, na ya' siyavaya viya-garejja, Sukr. 1. 14. 19.

103.   Sankejja ya' samkitabhava bhikkhu, vibhajjavayam ca viyagarejja, bhasadukam dhammam-samutthitehim vyagarejja samaya supanne. ibid. 1. 14. 22.

104.   PK. 14.

105.   Vibhajjavayam ca viyagraejja, sukr. 1. 14. 22.

106.   Ekamsika pi...maya dhamma desita pannatta, D. i. 191.; Cf. vibhajja-vado...aham...naham...ekamsavado, M. ii. 197.

107.   "The Logic of Relatively as the Common Ground for the Development of the Middle Way", Buddhism and Culture, ed. Susuma Yamaguchi, Kyoto, 1960, p. 80.

108.   MA. ii. 831; DA. iii. 906.    109. M. i. 232.

110.    S. iv. 298-9.    111. M. i. 498 ff.

112.   MA. iii. 204.    113.   DPPN., sv. Dighanakha.

114.   Katamo ca Rahulo tejodhatu ? tejodhatu siya ajjha-ttika siyavahira, M., Cularahulovadasutta; Also see the Bodhirajakumarasutta of the same Nikaya, p. 330 (Nagari edition).

115.   Utpadadyastrayo vyasta nalam laksanakarmani. Samskrtasya samaskrtasya samastayu rekatra kathamekada. Utpadasthitibhangnamanyat samskrtalaksanam. Asticedanvasthaivannasti cette na samskrtah. Mk. 45-6.

116.   Etenaiva yadahrikah kimapyasl lamakulam. Pralapanti pratiksiptam tadapyekanta sambhavat. Digam-baranam idam ca kimapyayuktam aslilamaheyopadeya. maparinisthanat akule "syadustro dadhi na syaditi" yairuktam te' pi etenaiva praksiptah. bhabenaiva ekantabhedat. PV. 1. 183.

117.   Sarvasyobhayarupatve tadvisesanirakrteh.

Codito dadhi khadeti Kimustram nabhidhavati.

Athastya-tisayah kascit yena bhedena vartate.

Sa eva dadhyonyatra nasltyanubhayam param. ibid 1. 184-5.

118.   Sarvatmatve ca sarvesam bhinnau syatam na dhidhvanih. Bhedasamharavadasya tadabhavadasambhavah. ibid., 1. 185-6

119.   Athotpadavyayadhrauvyayuktam yattatsadisyate. Esameva na satvam syat etadbhavadhiyogatah etc., PV A., p. 142.

Yada vyavastadasatvam katham tasya pratiyate.

Purvam pratites atvam syat tada tasya vyayah katham.

Dhrauvye' pi yadi nasmin dhih katham satvam pratiyate.

Pratiterevasarvasya tasmatsattvam kuto' nyatha.

Tasmannityanityasya vastunah sambhavah qvacit.

Anityam nityamathavastu ekantena yuktimat. PV A, p. 142.

120.   HBT., p. 233.

121.   "Utpadavyayadhrauvya yuktam sat" ityetadapyayu-ktam, dhra uvenotpadavyayayorvirodhat, ekasmin dharminyayogat. kathancit utpadavyayau kathancit, dhrauvymiti cet. yathotpadau na thatha dhrauvy-ayam, yatha ca dhrauvyam na tathotpadavyayayayaviti naikam vastu yathoktalaksanam syat. ibid. p. 146.

122.   Drvyaparyayarupatvat dvairupyam vastunah kila. Tayorekatmakatvepi bhedah. samjnadibhedath ibid., p. 104.

123.   ibid. v. 4-5.    124.   ibid. v. 7-12, p. 105.

125.   ibid., v. 20 & 25. p. 106.    126.   TSP. p. 421.

127.   TS., 1722    128.   ibid. 1723.

129.   ibid. 1720-30    130.   cf. ibid. 1733-35.

131.   yo'pi Digambaro manyate--Sarvatmakameyedam syadanyapohavyatikrme tasmad bheda evanyatha na syadanyabhavo bhavanam yadi na bhabediti, sopya-nena nirastah. abhavena bhavsbhedasya kartuma-sakyatvat. napyabhinnanam hetuto nispannanamany-onyabhavah sambhavati. bhinnascennispannah, kathamanyonyabhavah sambhavati ? PVST. p 109.

132.   tena yo'pi Digambaro manyate...sopyatra nirakrta eva drastavyah. tadvati samanyavisesavati vastunya-bhyupagamyamane atyantenabhedabhedau syatam... atha samanyavisesayoh kathancidabbeda isyate...... mithyavada eva syadvadah. --PVST., p. 332-42.

133.   Jaina Theories of Reality and Knowledge, p. 22-23.

134.   Sadbhuta dharmah sattadidharmaih samana bhinnascapi yatha Nirgranthadinam. Tanmatam na samanjasam. kasmat ? no bhinnabhinnamete'pi purvavat bhinnabhinnayordosabhavat.....ubhayore-kasmin asiddhatvat......bhidnnabhnnakalpena na sadbhutam nyayasiddham satyabhasam grahitam. 2.2.

135.   Gunaved dravyamutpadavyadhrauvadayo gunah.

Dudrava dravati drosyatyekanekam svaparyayam.

Bhedajnanat pratiyet pradurbhavatyayu yadi.

Abhedajnanatah siddha sthitiramsena kenacit. NV., 117-8.

136.   Arcatacataka tadasmaduparama, dustarkapaksabala-clanat. Syadadacalavidalanacuncurna tavasti nayacancuh. --NVV., 1087.

137.   AJP. Vol. I. p. 72.

138.    Na narahsimharupatva na simho naraupatah.

Sabdavijnakayanam bhedat jatyantaram hi tat.

Nanaro nararyeveti na simhah simha eva hi.

Samanadhikaranyena narasimhah prakirtitah.

Dravyat svasmadabhinnasca vyavrttasca parasparam.

Unmajjanti nimajjanti jalakallolavat jale.

--NKC., p. 369; also see APT., p. 15.

139.   Bhutadosasyodbhavayitumasakyatvena asaddusaneno-dbhavanam sa jatih, NVV., Vol. 11. p. 233.

140.   Tatra mithyottaram jatih yatha' nekantavidvisam. Dadhyustraderabhedatvaprasangadekacodanam. NV., 2. 203.

141.   NVV., Vol. Il. p. 233.

142.   Purvapaksamavijnaya dusako' pi vidusakah iti prasiddhah. NVV., Voil. ii, p. 233

At another place Dharmakirti is called `Kathamunmatto' NVV., p. 17 Kutsitmasamsamanah ayam prasiddho Dharmakirti kenapi Dignagadina vancitah (SVT., p. 365 etc.)

143.   NV., 2. 204-5, Like-wise at another place Akalanka, commenting on the Buddhist Acaryas, especially Dharmakirti, says :

Dadhyadau na pravarteta Bauddha tadbhuktaye.

Janah, Adrasyam saugatim tatra tanum samsankamanakah.

Dadhyadike tatha bhukte na bhuktam kancikadikam.

Ityasau vettu no vetti na bhukta saugati tanuh.

--Siddhiviniscayasvavrtti, 6, 37.

144.   Stuletarakarayorapyevamanyonyabhede satyapi dravyenaikena tadatmyopapatteravaya vino Jainabhi-matasya suvyavasthatvat, NVV Pt. ii. p. 172; Sadrasatmanah santo niyatarttaya h. ibid pt. ii. p. 52.

145.   PSg. p. 115-6.

The Date of Buddha  

1. IA., 1914, pp. 126.

2.   Introduction to the Dhammapada, SBE., pp. xliii-xlvii.

3. Book of Indian Eras, p. 34.

4. Vinaya Pitaka, SBE., Vol. xlll. p. 28.

5.   Political History of India, p. 227.

6. Kern, Buddhism, 11. p. 63.

7. Agama aura Tripitake : EKa Anusilana, P. 114.

8. Journal Asialique, 1900, pp. 316; Eng. trans. by J. M. Seneviratne, JRAS (Ceylon Branch), Vol. xxiv., No. 68, pp. 82-102.

9. "Date of the Buddha's of Ceylon from a Chinese Source", JRAS, 1911, pp, 1142-1144.

10.   Epigraphia Zeylanica, Vol. 1. pp. 79-80, 122-124, 155-157.

11.   Mahavamsa, intro. pp. xxii.

12.   JRAS. (Ceylon Branch), 1914, Vol. xxxiii, No. 67, p. 143.

13.   Dve satani ca vassani attharasa vassani ca. Samubuddhe parinibhute abhisitto piyadassano. Dip., vi. 1.

14.   Jinanibbanato pacca pura tassabhisekato. Sattharasam vassasatadvayam evem vijaniyam. Maha Vamsa. v. 21.

15.   Dip., v. 100; Maha., v. 16-18.

16.   Dip., vi. 21-22; Maha., v. 22.

17.   Smith, V. A; The Early History of India, pp. 38-9, Roychaudhuri accepts 323 B. C.

18.   ERE., 1. pp. 260-261.

19.   Book of Indian Eras, pp. 34-5.

20.   Ulien's Hwen Thsang, 11.335.

21.   Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, translated by Giles C. vii.

22.   Epigraphia Zeylanica, Vol. 1. p. 155 & p. 123; See also Galvihara Inscription of Polonnaruwa, 11. 1-4 (Ed. Muller, Ancient Inscription of Ceylon, pp. 87. 120).

23.   Hultzsch, South Indian Inscription iii. no. 27, p. 53; Epigr. Zeyl. pp. 80, 155.

24.   Geiger, Mahavamsa, intro. p. xxix.

25.   University of Ceylon Review, Vol. xviii. Nos. 3 & 4, pp. 131.

26.   Epigraphia Zelanica. Vol. 1. pp. 79-80, 122-124, 155-57.

27.   The date of Buddha's death and Ceylon chronology, JRAS. Vol. xxiii. No. 67, 1914, pp. 143.

28.   Ibid., P. 253.

29.   Contribution to Sinhalese chronology, JRAS. 1913, p, 517-531.

30.   JRAS., (Ceylon Branch), Val. xxiii. No. 67, 1914.

31.   IA., Vol. xi. 1882, p. 246 (for the particulars about Indrabhuti Ganadhara). 

APPENDIX II 

Buddhist Councils

1. Alam avuso, ma socittha, ma paridevittha, Samutta mayam tena mahasamanena, upadduta ca homa, idam vo kappati idam vo na kappati, idani pana mayam yam icchissama tam tam karissam. yam na icchissam tam na karissam. Dighanikaya, Mahapari-nibbana-Sutta; Vinaya Pitaka, Culla, Pancasatika Khandhaka.

2. Pure adhamo dippati, dhammo patibahiyati. avinayo dippati.    3.   Mahavamsa., ii. 2.2

4. There is no unanimity regarding to inclusion of Ananda in the First Council. See, Le Councile de Ragaha, p. 225.

5. Prof. La Valiee Pousin has traced some of these rules in the Mahavagga (vl. 17-19-20). Purana says "The dhamma and the Vinaya have been well sung by the Theras. Nevertheless, even in such manner as it has been heard by me from the mouth of the Blessed One, in that manner will I bear it in memory." Vinaya Pitaka, iii.34l-Culla, XL. i. i., quoted by S. Dutta in The Buddha and Five After Centuries, p. 103.

6.   Buddhistic Studies, p. 44.

7.   Recherches sur le Bouddhisme, 1887, translated from Russian into French by R. H. Assier de Pompognan, 1824.

8.   Buddhistische Stuaien, ZDMG, 1898, pp. 613; Introduction to the Vinayapitaka, Vol. 1.xxv-xxix.

9. The life of the Buddha, p. vii.

10.   General introduction to the Buddhist Suttas, SBE. Vol. XL. p. xiii.

11.     J. P. T. S., 1908, pp. 1-80.

12.   The Buddha and Five After Centuries, p. 102,

13.   IHQ., Viii. pp. 241-6.

14.   Early Monastic Buddhism. N. Dutta, Vol. 1. p. 337.

15.   IHQ., VIII. pp. 781-4.

16.     Le Mouseon, VI. pp. 213-323, tr. into English in the Indian Antiquary, 1908; See also ERE., sv. Councils.

17.     Le council de Rajagrha, by Jean Przyluski.

18.   ZDMG., Vol. xxxiv; 1880, pp. 184 ff.

19.   Tata anantaram-dhammasangani-vibhangance, kathavatthunca Puggalam, Dhatu-yamaka-patthanam, abhidhammati vaccati. Evam samvannitam sukhama-yanagocaram, tam samgayitva idam abhidhammapi-takam namati vatva panca-arhantasatani sajjha-yamakansu. Sumangalavilasini, Nidanakatha.

20.     2 Cf. Early Monastic Buddhism, Vol. 1. p. 339.

21.   Recherches Sur le Bouddhisme, pp. 35-36.

22.   Early Monastic Buddhism, Vol. 1. p. 339.

23.   Mahavamsa, 5.

The Tibbetan and Chinese accounts give a quite different reason. They relate this dissension with Mahadeva's dogmas, which are as follows :

(i) An Arhat may commit a sin by uncounscious temptation. (ii) One may be an Arhat and not know it. (iii) An Arhat may have doubts on matters of doctrine. (iv) One cannot attain Arhatship without a teacher., and (v) The noble ways may begin by a shout, that is one meditating seriously on religion may make such an exclamation as how sad ! How sad ! and by so doing attain progress towards perfection--the path is attained by an exclamation of astonishment.--2500 years of Buddhism, p. 98.

24.   Dipavamsa, 5.30 foll. names it Mahasamgiti, while the Mahavamsa, 5. 3-4, calls it Mahasanghika.

25.   Historic due Bouddhisme Dans, 1. Indc : Buddhistic Studies, p. 26.

26.   Manual of Buddhism, p. 109.

27.   Introduction to the Vinayapitaka, p. xxix.

28.   Buddhist Philosophy in India and Ceylon, Vol. 11. pp. 265-6.

29.   Buddhist Philosophy, p. 19.    30.   Ibid.

31.   Hultzsch, E., Inscriptions of Ashoka,; Corpus Inscription Indicarum, Vol. 1. Oxford, 1925, pp. xliii. ff; p. 160. No. 5.

32.   Studies in the Origin of Buddhism, p. 8.

33.   The Vajjiputtakas established the Maha-Sanghika sect in the Second council. It was divided later on into five sects and become six, Viz. Mahasanghika, Ekabboharika, Gokulaka, Pannattivadi, Bahulika, and Cetiyavadi.

APPENDIX III 

The Concept of Omniscience In Buddhism 

1. M. i. 529; ii. 31; Buddhist Legend (Dhammapadattha-katha), Vol. 29. p. 74 ff.

2. M. i 482.    3.   A. iv. 164.

4. PTS. Dictionary. 5.   D. i. 83.

6. So dibbene cakkhuna visuddhena atikkantamanusakena satte passati cavamane upapajjamane hine panite suvanne dubbanne sugate duggate yatha-kammupage. D. i 82.    7.   M. i. 213.

8. A. i. 170-171; Early Buddhist theory of Knowledge p. 440.

9. A. ii. 191.    10.  M. i. 167.

11.     D. iii. 12; A. i. 340.    12.  M. i. lll.

13.   Sn. 229.    14.  M. i. 347.

15.     So imam dukkham dukkham ti yathabhutam pajanati, ayam dukkhasamudayo ti.....ayam asavanirodhagami-nipatipada ti, D. i. 84.    16.   Sn. 478.

17.   Dialogues of the Buddha, iii. p. 12.

18.   ibid. ii. p. 4.    19.  D. i. 223.

20.   Unlimited retrocognition, unlimited clatrovoyance, and knowledge of the destruction of the inflowing impulses, M. i, 482.

21.     In addition to the three--fold knowledge : (i) the Buddha knows, as it really is, what is possibe as possible and what is impossible as impossible, (ii) the Buddha knows as it really is the effects according to their conditions and causes, of the performance of karma in the past, present and future, and (iii) the Buddha knows, as it really is, the corruption, perfection and arising from contemplative states of release, concentration and attainment, A. iii. 417.

22.     In addition to the six abhinnas the following four added : (i) The Tathagata knows, as it really is, the mode of a life leading to all states, (ii) the Tathagata knows, as it really is, the world with its various and diverse elements, (iii) the Tathagata knows, as it really is, the various predilections of beings, and (iv) the Tathagata knows, as it really is wha goes on in the senses and faculties of other beings and individuals, M. i. 71. Vibhanga, 335-44. Early Budelhist Theory of Knowleage.

23.     A. iv. 173 ff.; Smith, Asoka, p. 154.

24.   Buddhist Philosophy, p. 33.

25.   Sabbam sankhatam asankhatam anavassam janati ti......atitam......pacuppannam sabbam janati ti, Patisambhidamagga, 131.

26.   Kathavatthu, 228.    27. A. iii. 165.

28.   Milindapanha, 34.    29.   Atthasalini, 304.

30.   Dutta, N., Place of Faith in Buddhism, IHO. Vol. 16, p. 639.

31.   Pae-sadda-mahannava Vol. in. p. 796; Prakrita Vyakarana of Hemachandra. D. Pishel, Bombay, 1900. p. 159. Belief in the seven categories (saptatattvas) as ascertained in Jainlsm is calleed Right Belief (Samyag-darsana) which paves a way to attain salvation.

32.   Sarvarthasiddhi; 6.24.

33.   Yasastilaka and Indian Culture, p. 262, N. 3.

34.   Paeaisaddamahannava, Vol. iii. p. 796.

35.   Abhidhanarajendrakosa Vol. X.

36.   Heyopadeyatattvasya sabhyupayasya vedakah.

Yah pramanamasavisto na tu sarvasya vedakah.

Brahm pasyatu va na va tattvamistam tu pasyatu.

Pramanam durdarsi cedeha gradhranupasmahe.

Pv. 2.32-33.

37.   Tato vitaragatve sarvartha jnanasambhah punah kalantare tesam sarvajna-gunaraginam, alpayatnena sarvajnatvasiddhiravartta...PVA. p. 329.

38.   Ydyadicchti boddhum va tattvavetti niyogatah.

Saktireyam vidha-hyasya prahinavarano hyaso.

TS. 3628. 

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 

I. ORIGINAL SOURCES 

A. Pali Texts and Translations 

1.   Abhidhammatthasangaha. Ed. Rhys Davids, JPTS. 1884, Tr. R. Davids, PTS., 1910.

2.   Anguttara Nikaya, PTS., E. Morries and E. Hardy, 5 Vols; London, 1885-1900, Tr. F. L. Woodward and E. M. Hare, The Book of the Gradual Sayings, PTS. 5 Vols. London, 1932-36.

3. Apadana, PTS. Ed. Lilley, 2 Vols., 1925-7.

4.   Atthasalini by Buddhaghosa, PTS. Ed. Muller, 1897, Tr. P. M. Tin., The Expositer, 2 Vols. PTS., 1920-21.

5.   Buddhavamsa, PTS., Ed. Morris, 1882, Tr. B. C. Law, PTS., 1938.

6.   Dhammapada, PTS. Ed. S. Sumangala Thera, London, 1914, Tr. C. A. F. Rhys Davids. PTS. 1931.

Dhammapadatthakatha Ed. H. C. Norman PTS. 1906-14, Tr. Burtingame, HOS. 1921.

7. Dight Nakaya, PTS.E.T.W.Rhys Davids and J.E. Carpenter, 3 Vols. London, 1890-1911. Tr. T.w. Rhys Davids and C.A.F.Rhys Davids, Doalogues of the Biddha, SBE. Vols. 3 Oxford, 1899-1921.

8.Dipavamsa, PTS.Ed. and Tr. H.Oldenberg, William and Norgate, Edinburgh, 1879.

9.IDhammasangani, Ed.Muller, PTS. 1889, Tr.r.Davids London.1935.

10. Itivuttaka, PTS.Ed. Windisch, 1889,Tr.Woodward, PTS.1935.

11. Jataka, Ed. Fausboll, G Vols, London, 189996 Tr. Jataka Stories, Cowell, Chalmers, Eouse, Francis, and Neil, Cambridge, 1895-1907.

12. Kathavatthu,PTS.Ed.Taylor, 2 Vols, 1894-7,7 Tr. points of Controversy PTS. 1915.

13. Mahavanisa, PTS.Ed.W Geiger, London, 1958.

14. Majavamsa Tola, Ed. Malalsekera, 2 Vols. PTS. 1935.

15.Majjhima Nikaya, PTS,Ed.V. Trenkner and R. Chalmers, 3 Vols, London, Tr.I.B. Horner, Middle Length Sayinm. 3 Vols London,1954-9.

16. Manoratha purani Comy. to Anguttara Nikaya PTS.Ed.M. Walleser and H. Kapp,5 Vols. London, 1924-56

17. Milinda panha, London. Ed. V. Trenkner, London.1928.

18. Nettipakarana, PTS.Ed.E. Hardy, London, 1902.

19. Papancasudani Comy. to Majjhima Nikaya, PTS. Ed.J.H.Woods, J.HKosanbi and I.B.Horner,5 Vols, Loddon, 1922-38.

20.Paramattjakptola PTS. Cpmu. tp Sittanopita, Ed.H.Smith,3 Vols, London, 1916.18.

21. Smyutta Nikaya, pts. Ed. L. Feer, e Vols. London, 1884-1094, Tr. C.A.F.Rhys Davids and F.L.Woodward, PTS. The cook of the Kindred Sayings. 5 Vols, London, 1970-30

22. Saratthappakasini, Comy, to Samyutta Nikaya, PTS,Ed.F.L. Woodward 3 vols. London, 1929-37.

23. Sumangala Vilasini, Comy, to Digha Nikaya PTS.Ed. T.W.Thys Davids Carpenter, and W.Stede, 3 vols, London, 1886-1932.

24. Suttanipata, PTS. Ed. D. Anderson and H. Smith, London, 1948, Tr.V.Gausboll, SBE. Vol.10,Pt.e,oxford,1881.

25. Thera-and Therigatha, Oldenberg and Pischel, London, 1903-1913.Tr. Psalms of the Early Buddhists PTS. 2 Vols, London, 1903-1913.

26. Udana PTS.Ed.P.Steinthal, London, 1948.

27. Vibhanga, PTS.Ed.C.A.F. Rhys Davids, London 1904

28. Vinaya Pitaka, H. Oldenberg, 5 Vols, London, 1879 83. Tr.T.W.Rhys Davids and H. Oldenberg. The Book of Disciplene, SBE, Vols 13,17,20, Oxford, 1881-85.

29. Visuddhimagga, Ed. Warren and Kosambi, HOS 1950. Tr. Nanmali, the oath of Purification, Colombo, 1956.

B. prakrit Tcxts and Translations

30. Ayassaya (Avasyaka Bhasya, Comy. By Haribhadra and Malayagiri.

31. Ayaranga (Acaranga), Comy. By Silanka, Tr. H. Jacobi, Jaina Sutras, SBE. XXii. Oxrord, 1884.

32. Bhagawati (Bhagavai),with the Comy. Ed. S.C.P. Jhaveri and S. Kesharimalji, Vols.e, Surat, 1937, Jamnagar, 1940.

33. Bhava Asngraha by Devasena.

34. Dasveyaliya (Dasavaikalika), Niryukti by Bhadrabahu. Bombay, 1933.

35. Dravya sangraha by Nemicandra, with Vrtti, Ed. Ghoshal, SBJ. Eng. Tr S.C. Chakravatti, Arrah.

36. Gomattasara Jivakanda of Nemicandre.

37. Gomattasara Karmakanda of Nemicandre.

38. Jamvudivapannatti-Comy Santicandra, Bombay.

39. Kundakunda Granthavali-Phaltan, 1970.

40. Kappasutta (Kalpasutra), Comy. Samayasundara Tr. Jacobi, SBE. XXii, 1884.

41. Mahavandha, Bhutavali, Vols.7, Varanasi, 1956.

42. Mulacara, Bombay. 1933.

43.Nayadhammakhao, comy. Abhayadeva, Bombay.

44. Niyamasara of Kundakunda. Sonagarh, 1964.

45. Pahuda, Mathura. Vols. 12.

46. Pancastikayasata of Kundakunda. SBJ.

47. Pravacanasara of Kundakunda, Sholapur, 1947.

48. Samvayanga, Comy by Abhayadeva, Ed. Nem Chandra Ahmedabad, 1938.

49. Sanmati Tarka, Ahmedabad.

50. Satkhandagama with Dhavaula, Vols. 16. Amravati. Ed. Dr.hira lal Jain, 1939-1958.

51. Suyagadanga (Sutrakrtanga), Comy. By Abhayadeva, Bomnay, 1917.

52. Thananga comy. Abhayadeva, Bombay, 1937.

53. Uttaarjjhayana (Uttaradhyana), Comy. by Nemicandra, Bombay, Tr. Jacobi, SBE, xlv. 1895.

54. Uvasagadasao Comy. by Abgayadeva, Poona.

C. Sanskrit Texts and Translations

(a) vedic or Brahmanical

55. Atharvaveda Samhita. Ed.R.Roth and W.D Whitney,Berlin, 1224.

56. Bhagwadgita, Gita Press, Gorakhpur, 1926.

57. Bhagwat Purana Ed. Gopal Narain Company, Bombay 1898.

58. Brhadaranyaka Upnisada, Ed.E.H.Johnston, Calcutta, 1935.

59. Caraka Samhita by Caraka. With Ayutvedadipika of Cakrapanidatta, Ed,N.N.Shastri, 2 Vols. lahore, 1929.

60. Mahanharata, Gita Press, Gorakhapur, 1956-58.

61. Manusmrti, with Comy of Kullukabhatta, Ed.Ksemaraja Sri Krisnadas, `Sresthi' Tr. Datta. Calcutta 1909.

62. Mimamsa slokavartika by Kumarila. Kashi.

63. Nyayamanjari by Jayanta, Vizianagaram.

64. Nyaya Sutra by Gautama Ed. &Tr. S.C.vidyabhusana, S.B.H.Vol.8,Allahabad,1913

65. Nyayavataratika by Udyotakara, Kashi.

66. Patanjali Mahabhasya by Prasastapada, Vizianagaram.

67. Rka Samhita, bambay, 1867

68. Sankara's Works, 20 Vols. Sri Vani vilasa Edition. Srirangam, 1910.

69. Sankya Karika by Usvarakrsna, Ed.S.N. Shastri, Madras, 1948.

70. Sarvadersanasangraha, Ed, V.S. Abhenkara, 3rd edition Poona, 1951.

71. Satpatha Brahmana, Achyuta Grathamala Karyalaya, Kashi, 2 Vols, 1937-40.

72.Smriti Samucchaya Poona, 1905

73. Tatparyatika by Vacaspati, Ed.R. Shastri, Benaras, 1925.

74. Sukla Yajurveda Samhita, Ed.J.C. Shastri, Varanasi. 1971.

75. Visnu Purana, Ed, Jivanand Vidyasagar Bhattacharya, Calcutta, 1882.

76. Yogasutra by Patanjali, Ed,& Tr. R. Prasad, S.B.H. Vol. 4 Allahabad, 1925. 

(b) Jaina

77. Akalankagranthatraya by Akalanka, Bombay.

78. Akhyanakomanikosa by Nemichandra, Prakrit Text Society Varanasi 1962.

79. Anekantajayapataka by Haribhadra, Varanasi, 1962. Ed. B. Bhattachary, Vols. 2. Baroda 1947.

80. Aptamimamsa by Samantabhadra, Kashi.

81. Aptapariksa by Vidyananda, Delhi.

82. Astasahasri by Vidyananda, Bombay.

83. Astasati by Akalakna, Nombay.

84. Bhagavati Aradhana, Bcmbay, Solapur. 1935

85. Brhatkathakosa by Jarisena Bombay.

86. Brhatsvayuumbhussstotra by Samantabhadra.

87. Dhyanasataka by Jinabhadra, jamanagar.

88. Harivamsapurana Kashi.

89. Laghiyastraya by Akalanka, Bombay.

90. Nyayakumudacandra by Prabhachandra, Bombay.

91. Nyayavatara by Siddhasena Divakara, Bombay.

92. Nyayaviniscaya by Akalankka, and Ed. Dr. Mahendre Kumar Jain, Vols 2, Varanasi 1949.

93. Nyayaviniscaya Vivarana by Vadirana by Vadirajasuri, Kashi.

94. Pariksamukha by Manikyanandi, Bombay.

95. Pramanamimamsa by Mahendra Kumar, Bombay.

96.Prameyakamalamartanda by Prabhachandra, Ed. Dr. Mahendra Kumar Jain, Bombay,1941

97. Prameyaratnmala by Anantavirya, Ed.H.L. Shastri, Varanasi 1964.

98. Purusarthasidhyupaya by Amrtacandra, Ed.and Eng. Tr.by Ajita Prasad Jain, SBE, Lucknow.

99. Ratnakarandastavakacara by Samantabhadra, Bombay.

100. Sagaradharmamrta by Asadhara, Surat.

101. Sarvarthasiddhi by Pujyapada, Ed. Pt. Vanshidhara Merath. 1938.

102. Satyasasanapariksa by Vidyananda, Ed.Dr. Gokul Chand Jain. Kashi.

103. Sastravartasamuccaya by Haribhadra. Surat.

104. Siddhiviniscaya by Sklanka, Ed. by Dr. Mahendra Kumar, Varanasi, Vols. 2. 1959.

105. Siddhiviniscayatika by Anantavirya, Kashi, 1959.

106. Syadvadamanjari by Mallisena, with Eng. introduction and notes. Bombay, 1957.

107. Syadvadaratnakara by Vadidevasuri, poona.

108. Tattvarthasutra by Umasvami, Eng. Tr. J.L. Jaini, SBJ. Arrah.

109. Tattvarthavartika by Akalanka, Ed. Dr Mahendra Kumar Vols 2, 1953.

110. Visesavasyakabhasya by Jinabhadra, Ed.Pt D. Malvaniya Vols. 2.Ahmedabad, 1968.

111. Vasunandi Sravakacara, Ed.Pt.H.L. Shastri. Varanasi,1964.(c)Buddhist

112. Arthaviniscayasutra, with the comy. Ed. N. H. Samtani, Patna. 1971.

113. Abhidharmakosa by Vasubandhu, with Bhasya. Ed. Pradhan.

114. Abhidharma Pradipa. Ed.P.S. Jaini,Patan,1959.

115. Bodhicaryavatara by Santideva, Ed S.B Shastri Lucknow 1955.

116. Buddhacarita Ed.E.H.Johnston, Calcutta, 1935.

117. Catuhsataka by Aryadeva, Ed. Vidhu Sekhara Bhattacharya, Santiniketana, 1937.

118. Dharmottarapradipa by Dharmottara, Ed. Malvaniya, Patana.

119. Divyavadana Ed. P.L. Vaidya, Darbhanga.

120. Hetutattvopadesa by Jitari, 1956.

121.  Hetubindutika by Arcata and Aloka by Pandita Durvekamisera, Ed. Pt Sukhalal Sanghavi, Barodo.1949.

122. Lalitavistara, Ed.P.L. vaidya. Darbhanga.

123. Lanakavatara, Ed.P.L. Vaidya, Darbhanga.

124. Madhyamikakarika by Nagarjuna.

125. Nyayabindu by Dharmakirti, Ed. Malvaniya, Patna, 1955

126. Nyayapravaesa by Dharmakirt Baroda.

127. Pramanavartika by Dharmakirti, JCORS. VOL. XXIV.

128. Prmanavartika Svavrttitika by Karnakagomina, Allahabad.

129. Pramanavartikalankara by Prajnakaragupta, Patana.

130. Saddharmapundarika, Ed, P.L. Vaidya, Darbhanga, 1960.

131. Saundarananda, Ed.E.H.Johnston, London, 1928.

132. Tattvasangraha by Santaraksita and Panjika by Kamalasila, Ed. Krshnamacharya, 2 vols. Baroda, 1926. Eng. Tr. Ganganath Jha, Baroda, 2 vols, 1937-39.

133. Vijnapatimatratasiddhi, Peris, 1828-9, 1948.

134 .Vigrahavyavartini, Patana.

135. Siksasamuccaya, Ed.P.L. Vaidya, Darbhanga.

II-SECONDARY SOURCES

A.Reference Books

136. Abhidhana Rajendra, Kasa Ed. Vijayarajendra Suri, Ratlam, 1913-25.

137. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary, Ed. F. Edferten, London, 1953.

138. Dictionary of pali Proper Names, Ed F. G. P. Malalsekera, London 1937-8.

139. Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, Ed.G.P. Malalasekera Colombo. 1962.

140. Encyclocoaedia of Religion and Ethics, Ed. J. Hastings, Edinburgh, 1908-29

141. Mahavyutpatti, Ed.I.P.Minaev, 1911.

142. Paia-Sadda-Mahnnaava, Calcutta. 1928.

143. Pali English Dicgionary, Ed. Rhys Davids and W. Stede, London, 1921.

144. Sanskrit English Dictionary, Ed. M. Monier Williams. Oxford 1899.

B Monographs

145. Ayangara. R and Rao, S, Studies in South Indiam Jainism, Madras. 1922.

146. Barua, B.M., A History of Pre-Buddhistic Indian Philosophy. Calcutta, 1921.

147. Basham. A. C. History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas, London, 1951.

148. Cunningham, Book of Indian Eras, London.

149. Conze, Edward,Buddhism, London.

150. Das Gupta, S.N.A history of Indian Philosophy Cambridge, 1922.

151. Deo, S.V. History of Jaina Monachism, Poona, 1955

152. Dutta, N, Early Monastic Buddhism, Calcutta, 1960 Aspects of Mahayana Buddhism.

153. Dutta. S, The Buddha and Five After Centuries, London 1957 Buddhists Monks and monasteries of India, London, 1962. Early Buddhist Monachism, London.

154. Garbe, R, Philosophy of Ancient India, Chicago, 1899.

155. Geiger, Wilhelm, Pali Literature and Language Calcutta.

156. Giles, Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms.

157. Geoen. A S, Studies in the Religions of the East.

158. Guruge, A. W. P, The Society of Ramayana, Maharagama, Ceylon, 1960; Vidyodaya Lipi, Colombo 1960.

159. Eliot, Sir Charles, Hinduism, and Buddhism, london 1921.

160. Jain, C. R. Sanyasa Dharma,Allahabad, 1916.

161. Jain Jagadisha Chandra Fife in Ancient India, as Depicted in Jaina Canons, Bombay, 1947; Prakrit Sahitya Ka Itihasa, Benaras, 1961.

162. Jain, Jyoti Prasad, Bharatiya Itihasa: Eka Drasti Kashi,1961

163. Kaom Lamata Prasad, Bhagawan Mahavria aura Mahatma Buddha, Surat, Bhagawan Mahavira Delhi,1955.

164. Jain Mahendra Kumara, Jaina Darsana, Denaras 1955.

165. Jayatilleke, K.N. Early Buddhis Theory of Knouledge, London, 1947.

166. Jenning, J. G., Vedantic Buddhism of the Buddha London, 1947.

167. Keith, A.B. Buddist Philosophy, Oxford, 1923.

168. Kern, H, Manual of Indian Buddhism, Strassburg. 1896.

169. Law B. C. Buddhist Studies, Calcutta, 1931. Same Kshatriy, Tribes of Ancient India Calcutta. 1924 Some Jaina Canonical Sutras, Bombay, 1949.

170. Macdonell, A, Vedic Reader for Students.

171. Mokerjee, S, The Jaina Philosophy of Nou-Absolututism, Calcutta. 1944.

172. Murti, T.R.V., The Central Philosophy of Buddhism, 1955.

173. Nahara and Ghosa, Epitome of Jainism, Calcutta, 1917.

174. Oldenberg, Buddha, Tr. Hoey, London, and Edinburgh 1882.

175. Padmarajah, Y.J. Jaina Theory of Reality And Knowledge, Bombay, 1963.

176. Pande, G.C Studies in the Origin of Buddhism, Allahabad, 1957.

177. Premi, N.r. Jaina Sahies  aura Itihasa, Bombay,1956

178. Radhaudhari, Indian Philosophy, New York, 18th Ed. 1966.

179. Raychaudhari, H. Political History of Ancient India, 1932.

180. Rice, L, Mysore and Coorg from Inscriptions London, 1932.

181. Rockhill, W.W. The Life of Buddha, London; 1884.

182. Snaghawi, S.L, Darsana aur Cintana, Ahmedabad, 1957: Advanced Studies in Indian Logic and Metaphysics, Calcutta, 1961.

183. Sankaliya, H.D, Arehaeology of Gujarat, Bombay, 1941.

184. Sen. A, School and sects in Jaina Literature, Calcutta. 1931

185. Shah, C.J. Jainism in North India, (800B.C-A.D. 526) London, 1932,

186. Shah, Umakanta, Studies in Jaina Art, Benaras, 1955.

187. Smith, V.A, Early History of India, Oxford, 1924.

188. Stcherbatsky, Th. Buddhist Logic, Vol. Leningrae, 1930

189. Stevenson, Mrs. Sinclair, Heart of Jaimism, 1915.

190. Tatiya, N.M. `Studies in Jaina Philosophy, Benaras, 1951.

191. Thomas, E.J., The History of Buddist Thought, London, 1953; The Life of the Buddha, New York 1927.

192. Upadhyaya, B, L, Sanskrit Sahitya Ka Itihasa Kashi, 1960.

193. Upadhyaya, K. n. Early Buddhism and the Bhagvadgita, Varanasi, 1971,

194. Vidyabhusana, S.C,A, History of Indian Logic Calcutta, 1921,

195. Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism Motilal Banarsidas Varanasi, 1970.

196. Waber, A History of Indian Literature, London, 1878.

197. Winternitz M.A, History of Indian Lilerature Vol. 11 Calcutta, 1933.

198. Rhys Davida; C.A.F, Buddhism, London, 1931.

199. Rhys Davids, T.W. Buddhist India, 1917.

200. Anekanta. Jaina Itihasa Series.

201. Bharatiya Vidya. Jaina Siddhanta Bhaskara.

202. Epigraphia Carnatica. Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society.

203. Epigrapha Indica

204. Epigraphia Zeylanica. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Soclety.

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DEX

Abhayadevasuti 133.

Abhayaraja kumara 127.

Abhayaraja Kumarasutta 127

Abhava, Kinds of 190

Abhidhamma Pitaka 55

Abhidharmakasa 91

Abhinna 278

Acaraingasutra 26,34

Acarya39, 46, 51, 63  70, 74, 80, 86, 87, 88, 93, 100, 109, 114, 125, 132, 133, 137, 139, 142, 142, 156, 158, 179.

Acelakatva 84, 114, 115, 123, 124.

Adipurana 94.

Agama 36, 79, 84, 101, 133, 155, 167.

Ahetukavada 86.

Ahimsa 19,99,101.

Ajatsattu 9, 16, 17, 18

Ajita Kesa Kambali, 12.

Ajivikas 4, 11, 16, 102, 104,

105, 106, 114, 116, 130, 1 8.

Ajnanavada 14, 197.

Akalanka 214, 215.

Akasa Kusuma 182, 190.

Akriyavada 10,13,75,76,80, 197.

Amaravikkhepavada 14.

Amaravikkhepika 194-5

Amrtacandra 100.

Ananda 26, 32, 81.

Anarthadandivrata 102, 103.

Anekantavada 39, 42, 63, 69, 71 73, 74, 85, 88, theory of 163, Methods of 171, in Buddhist literature 173, Rudiments of 173.

Anekamsika 200.

Anga 34. 56

Angabahya Sruta 38.

Angapravista 38.

Anguttara Nikaya 6, 10, 15, 24, 54, 75, 79, 82, 83, 84, 95, 100, 106, 107. 108, 131, 186, 187, 280.

Anhrikas 181.

Annmanapramana 156.

Anuradhapur 256.

Anuradhapur 267.

Anuvrata 93, 105, 109.

Aritthanemi 24.

Arthakriya 175-80.

Asatkaryavada 170,75.

Ascetics(terms for) 6, practices 115.

Atthakathas 58,

Atyantabheda 209.

Avyakata 200.

Barua 9, 10.

Basham 18, 27, 30, 102, 121.

Bavattarim Kalao22.

Bhadrabahu 35.

Bhagavati Sataka 106, 107

Bhagawatisutra 27, 125, 150.

Bhandarkar 106.

Bhavanas 4.

Bhedabheda 172, 175, 131, 189, 191, 206, 213.

Bimbisara 23, 43.

Bodhisatva 78.

Brahmacarya 94, 122.

Brhmajalasutta 4, 6, 7, 13, 67, 85, 92, 173, 194.

Buddha 9, 12, 16, 27, 32, 50, dete of 266.

Buddhaghosa 12, 13, 59, 70, 91, 108, 115, 121, 173.

Buddhism 27, 33, 50, 87, 89, 113, 115, 176, 186, Source of 50.

Buddhist 184.

Buddhist Councils 52, 53, 270-7.

Buddhist Literature 50, 52, 56, 85, 92, 11, 148, 150, 173, 186 Pali 52 Sanskrit 59. Carvak 13, 70, 136.

Canonical School 34 Literature 34 Development of 35.

Carpentier 265.

Cattari ariyasaccani 19.

Catuhsataka 70, 87.

Caturyamasamvara 14, 25, 44, 94, 120, 124.

Catuskoti 201.

Chalabhinna 278.

Charpentier 26, 27.

Cheyasuttas 35.

Ceylon 46, 265.

Cittagahapati 202.

Codringron, H. W. 268.

Cullavagga 53, 57, 271. 272, 274, 276.

Cunningham 266.

Danda 73, Tridanda 73.

Darsana 131 32.

Darsanasara 12.

Desavrata 102.

Deo, S.V. 3,5, 217.

Dhamampada 11, 17, 37, 55, 57, 108

Dharmabheda 209.

Dhammapadatthakatha 33.

Dharmakirti 137, 149, 150, 151, 158, 160, 166, 204, 205.

Dhyana 123 kinds of 123.

Digambara 109, 114, 133, 154, 178.

Dighanakha Paribbajaka 199, 203.

Digha Nikaya 24, 54, 59 94, 101, 120, 200.

Digvrata 101.

Dipavamsa 266.

Dravyas 60, Jiva 61,

Pudgala 63, Dharma and Adharma 65, Akasa 66, a 66 Six Drayas in Buddhist literature 66.

Jiva (Soul) 66, Ajiva (Karma)

73c Maksa 84, Dual character of 180-83 Nature of relation of 183.

Discipline (Moral) 110-11.

Divyavadana 17

Dutta, Nalinaksha 10.

Dutta, Sukumara 8, 16.

Durvekamisra 177, 178.

Ekamsika 200.

Eliot 217.

Epistemology 125, evolutionof 129.

Ethics 93, 95.

Fa-Hian 267.

Fasting 119.

Finot 272.

Ganadharas 31, 106,109,269.

Gavampati 270.

Gosala 27.

Gunavratas 100.

Gupti 123.

Haribhadra 172.

Hemachadra 29, 145, 160 72.

Heretical Teachers 8.

Heruvindutika 72, Aloka 177.

Hetvabhasa 214.

Hinayana 59, 179.

Himsa 99. 100

Hoernle 17, 266.

Hultzsch 268.

Jacobi, H. 15, 25, 27, 29, 101, 106, 107, 117, 121.

Jain, K.P. 223.

Jain, Jyoti Prasada 227.

Jain, M. K. 227.

Jain Philospphy 59, 60, 84, 92, 138, 143, 147, 167, 171, Literature, 33, Canonical 34, Development of 35, Resemblenceto 36, Anekanta School 39, Pramana School 41.

Jainism 27, 33, 79, 88, 89, 95, 99, 113, 143, 145, 152, 179, 189.

Antiquity of 22.

Origin of 21, Spread of 43, After Mahavira 46, in Ceylen 46,

Jaiswal K. P. 30.

Jataka 37, 55, 57, 59, 86.

Jatyantara 207, 213.

Jayatilleke 198.

Mahabodhi 13, 79.

Jetly 217.

Jinasena 94.

Jitari 210.

Jiva 61, 66.

Jnana 131, Cetana 131, kinds of classification of 34.

Kalpasatra 26, 29, 31.

Kalavada 64.

Kamalasila, 87, 91, 182.

Kapilavatthu 44.

Karkandacariu 49.

Karma 65, 73, 78, 79, 84, 92, 114.

Karmic Matter 65.

Karnakagomin 209.

Karyabheda 207.

Kathavathtu 53,55.

Kayotsarga 22, 103, 120, 122.

Keith 50, 197.

Kern 230, 266.

Khandaka 53.

Khvddaka 54, 55.

Knowledge, Classification of 134.

Kosala 44.

Kriyavada 76, 192.

Ksanikavada 170, 77, 78, 79.

Kumarapala 30.

Kumarila 138, 139, 153, 154.

Kundagrama 25.

Kundakunda 74, 80, 84, 90, 93, 114, 132, 147, 174, 175, 190.

Lalitavistara 6.

Laksanabheda 206.

Lesya 81.

Loca 123.

Magadha 43.

Mahabodhi Jataka 77, 78.

Mahakassapa 270,

Mahavagga 7, 25, 53, 54, 57.

Mahavamsa 46, 266.

Mahavamsa Tika 48.

Mahavibhanga 53.

Mahavira 15, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 33, 46, 106, 127.

Mahavrata 93, 101,. 110-11, 120.

Mahayana 59.

Majjhima Nikaya 12, 17, 24, 51, 54, 59, 74, 77, 79, 84, 96, 97, 114, 122, 127, 129, 148, 203.

Majumdar R. C. 127. 270.

Makkhali Gosalaka 4, 9, 11, 16, 77, 106, 198.

Manjusrimulakalpa 23.

Maxmuller 266.

Micchaditthi 4, 6, 7, 20, 194.

Milindapanha 24, 56, 58,

Minayeff 273.

Mithyavada 210, 211.

Mimamsaka 89. 91.

Myamoro 197, 201.

Monachism 53, 109, 11, 119.

Monastery 48, 49.

Monk 122, 149.

Requisites of 114-15, Mode of Cating 118, Quality of food 119, Circumstanees 119, Fasting 119, Supernatural Powere 120, Daily routine of 120, Loca 123, Acelakatva 123, Triguptis 123.

Mulacara 113, 117, 119, 242.

Mnlagunas 94, 110.

Mulasuttas 35.

Muni 51, 118.

Naiyayikas 194.

Nandisutra 198.

Nalanda 97, 98.

Nagarjuna 204, 266.

Narasimha 72, 208, 209, 213.

Nasadiya Sukia 193.

Navatattva 16.

Nayavada 185-87 Definition of 185 Number of 185, theory of Naya in Buddhist Literature 186.

Nibbana 19, 27, 32, 45.

Nigantha Nataputta 1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 20, 23, 25, Date of 26, of place Death 31, 33, 41, 54, 58, 69, 80, 94, 108, 111, 115, 128, 130, 148, 173, 202,

Niganthas 4, 108, 112, 115, 121, 148.

Nikayas (five) 54, 96, 1-7.

Niyatasambandha 215.

Niyativada 11. 64.

Nyaya-Vaisesikas, 62,77, 180.

Nityanityatmaka 191.

Non-violence 15.

Oldenberg 50, 266, 275.

Padartha (substance) 60, 85, 92, 171, 172.

Padmasrajah 210, 211.

Pakudha Kaccayana 13.

Pancapapa 93.

Pancavratas 93.

Pali Canon 22, 23, 85, 94, 108, 11, 114, 120, 148, 150, 173.

Pali Tripitaka 30.

Pancastikayasara 2000.

Pancavatthu I 267.

Paranavitana 268.

Paribbrajakas 85, 108.

Parigraha 95, 96.

Patisambhidamagga 280.

Rajgaha 43, 120, 128, 150,

Ratnakaranda Sravakacara 74.

Raychaudhari 266.

Rgueda 193.

Rhys Davids `T. W. 3, 7, 56.

Rockhill 242, 271.

Rsabhadeva 21.

Saccaka 127. 202.

Saddharwapundarika 6.

Saketa 44.

Salvation 11, 19, 24,84.

Samagamasutta 32.

Samana 80. 107, 116.

Samannaphala Sutta 9, 11, 14, 25, 26, 120, 121.

Samantabhadra 206.

Samavayanga 5.

Samayika 103, 106.120.

Samiti 111, 122.

Samyutta Nikaya 10, 54.

Samyukta "vastu 272.

Sanjay Belatthiputta 14, 195, 197.

Sankara 208.

Santana 213.

Santaraksita 71, 72, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 134, 137, 136, 139, 140, 143, 144, 159, 164, 165, 166, 175, 176, 178, 179, 180, 208, 282.

Sankkhya 180,

Saptabhangi 191.

Sassatavada 13, 32, 59, 68, 69, 92, 173, 169, 202.

Satkaryavada 170, 75.

Satkhandagama 89, 132.

Savatti 44.

Schism 31. (Jain order)

Senaviratne 266, 268.

Shastri, K.C. 228.

Silanka 10, 18, 77, 79, 192.

Skandha 90.

Smith 266.

Sramana 2, System 2, Classification 3, Common Features 4, importance of 6.

Sramanism 16.

Sudras2.

Sumati 136, 38, 39, 140, 143, 138.

Syayaovada 170.

Sutrakrtang 6, 12, 18, 37, 75, 76, 87, 124, 174, 199.

Sutta Pitaka 53, 54.

Sutta Nipata 3, 17, 125, 36.

Svabhavabheda 210.

Svabhavavada 64, 86, 87.

Svetambara 4, 115, 133.

Syadvada 14, 16, 19, 42, 43, 59, 73 169, 171, 185, 187, 188, 189, Theory 187, opponents on 139, kinds of dosas 189, Saptabhangis of 191, Syadvada Conception in Buddhist Literature 193216 in Vedic and Upanisadic period 1934, Buddha on 200 Makkhali, on 198 Parsranatha Tradition 202 refutation of 204, Dharmakirti on 204, Prjnakaragupta on 205, Arcata on 206 Santaraksita on 208, Karnakagomin on 209 Jitari on 210, Evaluation 211.

Syadvadamanjari 143.

Sylvain Levi 265.

Syat 204.

Tadatmyasambandha 215.

Takki 130.

Tathgata 127.

Tatvas (seven) 67, 92.

Tattvarthasaradipiha 107.

Tattvarthasutra 172.

Tattvasangraha 40, 71, 86, 89, 91, 134, 162, 179, 299.

Teacher (six) 8-9.

Thananga 4, 34, 37, 54, 74,,

113, 125.

Theragatha 55, 56

Theravada 59,

Tharigatha 55, 56.

Thinkers 130 Kinds of 130.

Tipitaka 37, 53, 56, 58, 96,

Tirthankaras 21, 23, 33, 47, 51, 111, 112, 127, 147-50.

Tiryakasamanyatmaka 209, 210.

Titthiyas 4.

Trairasikas 198, 199.

Trayatmakavada 175-80

Ubhayavada 206, 207, 212.

Ucchedavada 13, 32, 59, 68, 69, 92, 173, 196, 203, 303.

Ujjaini 29.

Umaswami 93, 146, 72.

Universe 85.

Upadhye Dr. A. N. 6,217

Upali 82, 83.

Upalisutta 74.

Upalisutta 74.

Upanga 35.

Upanisadas 194.

Upatissy 267.

Uposatha 58, 101, 104, 105, 106, Kinds of 103, Gopalaka 103, Niganth 104.

Urdhasamanyatnaka 209, 210

Uttaradhyayant 35, 36, 37,

Uvasagadasao 12, 34.

Vada 126.

Vadiraja 203, 219.

Vadanmyay writer of 177.

Vaisali 25, 45, 99, 101, 102.

Vaisesika 62, 77, 206, 208, 212.

Vappa 82.

Vassavasa 53, 113.

Vasuvandhu 70.

Vedic literature 1.

Society 1.

System 1, 2.

Vibhajiavaya 118, 199.

Vidusaka 214.

Vijanavada 1, 4, 145.

Vimanvatthu 55, 57.

Vinaya Pitaka 53, 99, 114.

Visakha 101, 103, 115.

Vivartavada 170.

Vividhatirthakalpa 30.

Vratyas 3, 217.

Wickremasinghe 260, 268

Vijesinghe 268.

Winternitz 3, 37.

 

 

 

ERRATA

P  Line   Incorrert  Correct

1  4   Niganth   Nigantha

11 5    is birth   his birth

11 15   on the of river   on the bank of river.

26 6   Niganth   Nigantha

38 1   anonical   Canonical

38 26   Cannon   Canon

41 24   other Pramarias   Other Pramanays

46 14   Candelas   Chandelas

48 36   Tejpur   Terapur

59 27   Vifnavada   Vijnanavada

73 18   Know   Known

78 15   as   at

83 19   is the     is

96 26   To   The

110     16   18 Noon   3-4P.M.

178     16   26   27

179     26   Ksanabhangavada   Ksanabhangavada

179     30   santarakisata   Santaraksita

185     26   Dunnaya   Durnaya

186     27   fn   in

187     20   Nayovada   Nayavada

187     22   Oi   of

187     26   Naya   Naya

190     23   Pradhvamsabhavr   Pradhvamsabhava

191     11   Acaryas   Acaryas

192     17   Spayannasti   Syannasti

194     17   Or   of

194     53   Brahma   Brahma

198     35   Jayatilleka   Jayatilleke

207     34   Jatyantara   Jatyantara

288     28   Ydyadicchati   Yadyadichati

288     28   Va   Va

 

 

 


 

Index

 

Subjects and Persons (Capital letters)

Sanskrit Technical Expressions, And Titles (Italics)

 

Abhasa, 11-16

Abhaya, Lichchhavi prince, XXX

Abhindhana-chintamani, 128, 134

Abhinandana-Natha, a Tirtharikara, 6 Table

Abhinibodha, 1

Abraham [charya], 94

Achara, 133. See also Ethics

Acharanga-sutra, 7, 135 (contenrs)

Acharya, definition of 2, 80

Actions, soul the doer of, 77. See also Karma and Yoga

Adana-nikshepana 97, 134

Adeya, 35

Adharma, meaning of xxiii; a substances, 13, 14, 22, 25; not in empty space, 26; texts concerning, 85, 87, 90, 136

Adhigama, 55, 56

Adhikarana, 55, 56

Adhruva, 62

Adi-Natha, a Tirthankara=Rishabha, 6 table

Aeon, XXVI

Agadha, 50

Agama, 108, 113

Ages, XXVI

Aghatiya-karma, 27, 41

Agrayaniya-purva, 139 (Contents)

Agurulagh quality, 35, 85, 86

Aharaka body, 33, 44, 60

Ahimsa defined, xxiv; duty of 70, 96, 133

Ahoratra, 15

AIR souls of, 8

Airavata-Kshetra, 119

Ajita-Natha, a irthankara, 6 Table

Ajiva, "non-soul," xxii, 7, 82-4

Ajivaka doctrine, xxx

Ajna, 55, 108

Ajnana, 94

Akasa, 22, 85, 87

Akasa-gata-chulika, 142

Akinchana, 132

Akriya-vada, xxxi

Akshepani, 138

Akshipra, 62

Aloka, 14, 22, 119

Alpa, 62

Alpa-bahutva, 57

Alpavidha, 62

Altruism, 70

Amritachadra Suri, See Purushartha-siddhy-upaya

Amudha-drishti, 108

Amurta, 83

Amurtika, 16

Anadhyavasaya-jnana, 115

Ananta-chatushtaya, 20, 130

Ananta-darsana 1

Ananta-jnana, 1

Ananta-Nath, a Tirthankara, 6 Table

Anantanubandhi, 32

Anantanubandhi-Kashaya, 49

Ananta-sukha, 1

Ananta-virya, 1

Ananugamika, 63

Anasana, 131

Anavapta, 131

Anavasthita, 63

Anekanta, 116

Anga-bahya Sruta, xxxvi, 143

Angas, xxxvi, xxxviii, 63, 108, 135f, (contents), 145

Angels, body of, 43, 60

Anger, 94

Angopanga-nama-karma, 33 Table

Anguttara Nikaya, xxxi

Anihsrita, 62

Anitya, 97

Anivritti-karana, 51

Antagada-dasao, See Antakrid

Antakrid-dasa-anga, 137 (contents)

Antara, 57

Antara-muhurta, 57

Antaraya-karma, 27, 31, 36 Table

Anthropomorphism 55

Anu, 20

Anubhaga, 30, 95

Anubhava, 99

Anugamika, 63

Anukta, 62

Anumana, 113

Anumati-tyaga, 70

Anupalabdhi, 113, 114

Anupreksha, 97

Anupreksha-stokah quoted, 77, 80

Anupurvi 35

Anuttara gods, 124

Anuttaropapadaka-dasa-anga=Anuttarova-vaiya-dasao, xvi, 137 (contents)

Anu-vratas, 69, 72

Anya-drishti-prasamsa 50

Anya-drishti-samstava, 50

Anyatva, 98

Apagama, 62

Apagata, 62

Apanoda, 62

Apanutta, 62

Aparajjita, a Sruti-kevalin xxxvi

Apavaya, 62

Apaviddha, 62

Apavyadha, 62

Apaya, 62

Apayasa, 35

Aeta, 62

Apinda-prakriti, 35

Apramatta-virata, 51

Apratighata, 44

Apratyakhyana, 32

Apta, 108

Apurva-karana, 51

Apurvartha, 115

Arambha-tyaga, 70

ARA-NATHA, a Trthankara, 6 Table

ARDHA-MAGDHI, language xxv, 129

ARHATS, 2, 4, 41, 50, 78, 106

Arjava, 132

ARSHA language. See ARDHA-MAGADHI

Artha, 62

Arya-khanda, 119

Asadhara quoted, 68

Asanjnin, 56

Asarana, 97

Asarira, 3

Asatya, 94

Asrava, 35, 38f., 42, 56, 98

Asteya, 133

Astikayas, xxxviii, 13, 15, 16, 24, 54, 87, 119

Asti-nasti-pravada-purva, 139 (contents)

ASTRONOMY, Jain 125

Asubha, 111

Asuchitva, 98

A-sva-samvidita, 115

Atapa, 35

Atisaya, 78

Atisthula-sthula, 89

Atmanusasana quoted 53, 55

Atma-pravada-purva, 140 (contents)

ATMOSPHERES, 120

ATOMS, 21, 89

ATTRIBUTES, substance

and, 11f., 84

Audarika body, 33, 43, 60

Aum, 3

AUTHORITY. See Agama and Ajna

Avabodha, 62

Avadharana, 62

Avadhi-jnana, 59, 63, 109, 110

Avagahana, 91

Avagama, 62

Avagraha, 61, 62, 63

Avasarpini, xxvi, 2, 15, 199, 136; divisions of, xxvi

Avasthana, 62

Avasthita, 63

Avasyakas, 132

Avaya=Apaya, 62

Avidya, 58

Avipaka, 99, 100

Avipaka-nirjara, 41

Avirata-gunasthana, 72

Avirata-samyaktva, 49

Avirati, 94, 95

Aviruddha, 13, 114

Aviveka, 58

Avyakta, 48n.

Ayana, 15

Ayoga-kevalin, 52

Ayuh-karma, 27, 35, 36 Table

Badara, 35

Bahu, 62

Bahuvidha, 62

Bala, 82, 108

Bala-bhadras, 5, 126 (list) 139

BALLINI, Prof. A., xvi

Bandha, 37, 39, 95

Bandhana-nama-karma, 34

BAPNA, Rai Bahadur Seraymal, xiv

BARNET Dr. L. D.xvi

BARODIA, U.D., x

BEINGS, kinds of living 33

BELIEF Jaina, xxxii; false, 39

BELLONI-FILIPPI, Prof., xvi

BESARH, See VAISALI

BHADRABAHU, a Srutikevalin, xxxvi; another of the Kalpa-sutra, xxxviii

Bhadrasana, 130

Bhagavati 137 (contents)

Bhagavati-aradhana, 67

BHANDARKAR, Sir R. G., 145

Bharani, 114

Bharata-kshetra, 119, 123

Bhasha-samiti, 97, 134

Bhava, 51f. 57, 74, 136

Bhava-bandha, 95

Bhava-lesyas, 48n.

Bhava-pratyaya, 63

Bhava-samvara, 39, 40, 96

Bhavasrava, 38, 39, 93

Bhoga-bhumi, xxvi-vii, 48n.

Bhojana-katha, 94

Bibliography, Jain, xvi, xxv, 23

Bodhi-durlabha, 98

BODY, kinds of, 7, 33, 42-4, 60, 101; karma and, 7; mineral, 8; soul and 9; time not a, 16, 87; members of, 33; transition to new, 35; abandonment of 42-4; filled by soul, 83; atoms of, 103

BONDAGE, explanation and cause of, 37, 39, 95

BOOKS. See LITERATURE

BOSE, J. C., 8

Brahma-charya, 69, 97, 132

Brahmajala Sutta, xxx

BREWING, destruction of life in, 71

Brihat-Svayambhu-stotra quoted, 78

BUCHANAN-HAMILTON, Dr, ix

BUDDHA, Gautama, xxix

BUDDHISM, Jainism not a sect of, xxix f.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY, 58

BUDDHIST references to Jainism, xxx f.

BUHLER, Prof. G., ix xiii

BURGESS, Dr. J., x

CANON, Jaina, See LITERATURE

CATEGORIES, 7

CAUSE. See Karana

CELIBACY, 69

Chakra-vartins, 5, 126 (list) 139

Chakshur-nama-karma, 33

Chala, 50

CHANDRAPRABHA, a Tirthankara, 6 Table

Chandra-prajnapti, 138 (contents)

Charitra See CONDUCT

Charitrachara, 133

CHASTITY, 69, 97, 132

Chatur-angin, xxxvii

Chetana, 9, 83-4

Chheda-sutras, five, xxxviii; six, 146 (contents)

Chinta, 61

CHRONOLOGY, xxvi

Chulikas, xxxvi, 142

COLEBROOKE, H.T. ix, 128

CONDUCT, right, 52, 65-7, 89; rules of, xxiii

CONSCIOUSNESS, characteristic of soul, 9, 83-4

CONTEMPLATION, white, 51, 106; pure, 51-2; on twelve subjects, 97

CONTINENTS, name of, 121

CONVICTION, right, 52-4

COSMOGONY, Appendix II

COSMOLOGY, Appendix II

CREATION of conditions only, 12

CRIMINALITY low among Jainas, 73

CURZON, Lord, 73

CYCLES, world, xxxviii, 15

 

Danda, xxxi

Darsana, 56, 68

Darsanachara, 133

Darsanavaraniya-karma 27, 31, 36 Table, 91

Dasa-purvin, xxxvii

Dasa-vaikalika-prakirnaka, 144 (contents)

Dasa-vaikalika-sutra, 135 (contents)

DATES, xxviii, xxxvii-viii

DEATH, hollowness of 9

Dasa-virata, 50

Deva-gati, 45

dEVARDDHI ganin, xxxviii

DEVELOPMENT, stages of, moral, 48, 105

Dewali, day of xxix

Dharana, 62

Dharavahi-jnana, 115

Dharma, meaning of, xxxiii, 13, 22f., 26, 97; as Astikaya, 85, 87, 90, 136; limited range of, 97

Dharma-chakra, 130

Dharma-katha-anga, 137 (contents)

DHARMA-NATHA, a Tirthankara, 6 Table

Dharma-sastras, 23

Dharmas, ten, 132

Dharmastikaya, 2, 85, 87, 90

Dharmatman, 23

Dharauvya, 11, 16

Dhruva, 62

Dhundhias, xxxix n.

Dhyanza, 132 See also Sukladhuyana

Digambaras dialect of, xxv; views of, xxxviii, 135f. texts

Digha Kikaya, xxx

Dig-virati, xxxi

Divya-dhvani, 130

DOUBT, 50 94, 115

Dravya, xxxviii, 11, 24, (six eternal) 18, 74, 83, 84, 136

Dravya-bandha, 39, 95

Dravyarthika Naya, 116

Dravya-samgraha quoted 21, 79, 82, 83, 86, 87, 89, 90, 93, 95, 96, 100, 109, 110

Dravyasrava, 38, 39, 94

DRINK, kinds to be avoided 71

Drishti-pravada-anga, 138 (contents)

Drishti-vada, xxxvi

DUALITY, man's evident, 18

DUBE, Rai Bahadur Major Ram Prasad, xiv

Duhshama era, xxvi

Dvesha, 38

Dvipa, 120f., 138

Dvipa-prajnapti, 138 (contents)

DWARAKA, xxxiv

 

EARTH, Statinary 85; shape of, 120

EATING at night, 69

"Eine Jaina-Dogmatik," 128

Eka-angin, xxxvii

Ekadasa-angin, xxxvii

Ekanta, 94

Ekatva, 97

EPIGRAPHY, Jaina, xvi

ERAS, xxvi; not universal, 119. See also Avasarpini and Utsarpini

ERROR recongnized, 58

Eshana, 97, 134

ETHICS, introductory remarks on xix, xxi, xxiii, principles of Jaina, xl, 67f.

EXISTENCE froms of, 7, 33, 45, 104; and substance, 83

 

FAITH, right, 52, 68 (layman's), 108

FALLACIES, 115f.

FASTS regular, 69

FEELINGS, knowledge of, 59

FERMENTATION, destruction of life in, 71

FIRE, souls of, 8

FOOD, not to be taken at night, 69; non-0injury and 71; taking of, 94; accepting, 97; abstinence from 131

FOOTMARKS of Mahavira, xxix

FREEDOM, religious, 3, 41 (when attained)

FUHRER, Dr A. xxxiii

 

Gana-dhara, xxxv, xxxvii

Gardha, 34

GANGES, Great, 124

Gati, 33, 45, 56

Gautama, a Kevalin, xxix, xxxii, xxxvi; footmarks of, xxix

GAUTAMA, nyaya of, 117

GEOGRAPHY, 122

Ghana-vata-valaya, 120

Ghanodadhi-vata-valaya, 120

Ghati, 15, 114

Ghatiya-karma, 27, 41

Ghrana, 33

GIRNAR, Mount, xxxiv

GLASENAPP, Prof. H. von. xvi

GOD, notion of, xx-xxii; Jain view of, xl, 4, 28-9, 54

Gommata-sara quoted, 104-5

Gotra-karma, 27, 35, 36 Table

GOVARDHANA, a Srutikevalin, xxxvi

Grahana, 62

Graiveyaka gods, 124

GREAT PERSONS, sixtythree, 126 (list)

GREED, 94

Grihitartha, 115

GROWING, capacity of, 8

GUERINOT, Dr., quoted, xvi, xxiv, xxix, 23

Guna, 105

GUNABHADRA Acharya, 128

Guna-sthana, 42, 48, 105

Guna-vrata, 69

Gupti, 97, 133

Guru, 108

 

HAGIOLOGY, Jain, 5, 126f.

HAPPINESS, the summum bonum, xxii, 9, 19

HARIBHADRA Suri, 128

hEADS OF GROUPS OF SAINTS, special qualities of, 131f.

HEAVENS, number and place of xxxviii, 124

HELL, divisions of, xxxviii, 120-1; beings in, 43

HEMCHANDRA, 128, 134

Himsa, 94 See also Ahimsa

HISTORY, Jaina, x, xxvi

Hiyamana, 63

HOERNLE, Dr. R., ix, xiii, xxxvii

HOUSEHOLDER, life of, xxiii

HUMAN BEINGS, location of, in the vuniverse, 120, 122

Hundaka, 34

 

IDEAL, the Jaina, xxiv

IDOL-WORSHIP, 75

lha, 62

IMAGES, worship of, 74

INDEPENDENCE, man's, 4

Indian Antiquary, xxxvii

INDRA, 145

Indraka-bila, 136

Indraka-vimana. 136

INDRANANDIN, 134

INDUS, Great, 124

INFERENCE, 62, 115

INFINITIES, 1

INFLOW of matter. See Asrava

INSCRIPTIONS, Mathura, xxxiii

INSIGHT. See Darsana

INTUITIVE knowledge, 115

INVISIBILITY not proof of non-existence, 44

INVOCATION, Jain, 3

Irya, 97, 134

Ishat-prabhara world 124

ISLANDS, 122

 

JACOBI, Prof., on Jain literature, ix, xiii, xvi, xxv, xxxviii, 145; on antiquity of Jainism, xxx f.

Jaina Gazette, xvi 53

JAINA PHILOSOPHY, First Principles of, x

JAINA SCRIPTURES, Digambara, and Svetambara, 145

JAINAS, x, xii, modern, 73 (prosperity of)

JAINI, Manik-chand, xvi

JAINISM, early Buddhist references to, xxix f., 24; persecution of, xxxvii f., fundamental principles of, xl, 1 f.; not atheistic, 4; a practical religion, 73: occult side of, 74; books and articles on, x, xvi; Western interest in xii; preached to the world, xxvii: a peculiarity of, 22

JAIN LITERATURE SOCIETY, x

Jala-gata-chulika, 142 (contents)

JAMBU, a kevalin, xxxvi

Jambu-dvipa, 121 f., 138 (contents)

jambu-dvipa-prajnapti, 138 (contents)

Jati, 33

JEWELS, Three, 7, 52, 107

JHAVERI, Hirachand Liladhar, x, 118

Jijnasa, 62

Jina, 1. For list see Table

Jina-deva, 78

Jiva, xxii, 7, 9, 82-4, 136

Jivas, classes of xxxviii

Jnana, 108

Jnanachara, 133

jnana-pravada-purva, 140 (contents)

Jnanavaraniya-karma, 27, 30, 36 Table

Jnatridharma-katha-anga, 137 (contents)

JONES, Sir William, ix

JUNAGADH, xxxiv

 

Kala, 15

Kala, xxvi, 57, 86, 136

Kalpa, See Aeon

Kalpakalpa-prakirnaka, 144 (contents)

Kalpa-sutra, xxxviii

Kalpatita, 124

Kalpa-vriksha, xxvi

Kalpa-vyavahara-prakirnaka, 144 (contents)

Kalyana-vada-purva, 141 (contents)

Kama-deva, 5, 127 (list)

Kanksha, 50

Karana, 51, 113-15

Karma, xxiii, xxvii; doctrine of, xvi; material, 13; kinds of, 26f., Table; aspects of, 30: accumulation of, 37-8; riddance of, 37-41, 99

Karma-bhumi, xxvii

Karmana body, 4, 33, 43, 60

Karma-pravada-purva, 140 (contents)

Karma-vargana, 21, 71, 95

Karta, 83

Karya, 113-5

Kashaya, 45, 56, 94-5

Kashtha, 15

Kathani, 138

KATHIAVADH, xxxiii f.

Kaya, 16, 87, 89. See BODY

Kaya-klesa, 133

Kayotsarga, 133

KESIN, a Jaina, teacher, xxxii

Kevala-jnana, 60, 65, 109-10

Kevalin, xxxvi f., xxxix, 79

KINGS, talk concerning, 94

KNOWLEDGE, secular, xxiv; right, 52, 58; perfect, 60; false, 60; kinds of, 61, 109 f, 104; logic of, 61 f., 112 f., concurrent kinds of, 65: ways of deriving, 74; and karma, 96

KRISHNA, cousin of Neminatha, xxxv

Kriti-karma-prakirnaka, 143 (contents)

Kriya-vada, xxxi

Kriya-visala-purva, 141 (contents)

Krodha, 94

Kshattriya, xxiv

Kshayaa, 49, 57

Kshayika, 51

Kshayika-samyakta, 50

Kshayopasama, 48, 50, 57

Kshayopasama-nimittaka, 63

Kshetra, 57, 119 (list), 136

Kshma-moha, 52

Kshipra, 62

Kula-karas, 5, 128 (list)

KUNDAKUNDA Acharya quoted, 45, 77-80, 82-8, 90, 93, 96, 99-101, 104, 108, 111

KUNTHU-NATHA, a Tirthankara, 6 Table

LANGUAGE of Jaina, canon, xxv

LATTHE, A. B., x, 72

LAYMAN, rules for, xxiii, 67-68; stages in life of 67-8

Lesya, 42, 45 f., 56, 104

LEUMANN, Prof. E., ix

LIBERATION, xxiii

LICHCHHAVIS, xxxi

LIGHT, theory of, 21

LITERATURE, Jaina sacred x, xvi, xxxvi f., 135f.

LIVING BEINGS, 7. See Jiva

Lobha, 94

LOGIC, Jaina, 61, f., 112f. 118

Loka, 13, 14, 22, 98, 119

Lokanala-dvatrimsika, 128

LUNKAS, xxx n.

 

MACKENZIE, Cononel colin, ix

Madhya-loka, xxxviii, 22, 120

MAGNITUDES (asti-kayas), 7, 15, 24

Mahabhashya, vxxviii

Maha-bharata, xxxv

Maha-ganga 123

Mahakalpa-sanjnaka-prakirnaka, 144 (contents)

Maha-pundarika-prakirnaka, 145 (contents)

Maha-sindhu, 123-4

Maha-vagga, xxxi

MAHA-VANA forest, xxviii

MAHAVIRA, "Life of" xvi, xxvii; nirvana of, xxvii, xxxiii; not founder, xxxiii; speech of, xxxv; source of Jaina sacred books, xxxv;the ideal, 74

Maha-vrata, 133

Majjhima Nikaya, xxx

MAKKHALI GOSALA xxxi f.

Mala, 50

MALLI-NATHA, a Tirthankaras, 6 Table

MALLISHENA 118

MAN, xix f., 1 (dual personality, perfectibility), 60 (bodies)

Mana, 94

Manah-paryaya-jnana, 59, 60, 64, 109-10

Mangala, eight auspicious objects, 130

MANIKYANANDIN, 118

Manushya-gati, 45

Mardava, 132

Marga, 55

MARWARI, dialect, xxv

Masa, 15

Mati-jnana, 59, 61-2, 109-110

MATTER, xxiii, 13 (nature of), 20 (atoms, etc.) 20 (qualities), 21 (gross and fine), 38 (tendency of), 88.9 (texts)

Maurtika, 110

Maya, 58, 94

Maya-gata-chulika, 142 (contents)

MEDICAL science, See Prana-vada-purva-gata, 141

MEMORY, xxxvii (literary transmission by) 61, 1113

MERU, Mount, 121, 125

METAPHYSICS, subject of, xix; defined, xxi; introductory remarks on, xxii; Jain, 7 f., 82 f.

MEWAR, Jain scriptures in xxxviii

MIMAMSAKA, the system, 116

MIND, material, 13, 84

MIND-KNOWING, knowledge. See Manah-paryaya-jnana

mINERALS, souls of, 8

MIRACLES, see Jala-gata-chulika, etc, 142. See Pratiharya

Misra, 49

Mithyatva, 48, 94

Mlecchas, 123

MODES of expression (Nayas), 116

MODIFICATIONS in substance, 11; helped by time, 15

Moha, 38

Mohaniya-karma, 27, 32, 36 Table, 92

Moksha, 37, 41, 43, 65, 100

Moksha-marga, 49, 51, 52, 53, 67

MOLECULE, atoms in, 88

MOON, 125. See also Chandraprajnapti

MOTION, medium of, 13, 22, 85

MOUNTAINS, great, 122

Muthurta, 15, 57

Mula-sutras, xxxviii, 146

Muni, 2, 51

MUNI-SUVRATA, a Tirthankara, 6 Table

 

Nadi, trasa, 120

NAIYAYIKA system, 15

Nali, 15

Nama, 74

Nama-karma, 27, 32, 36 Table

NAMI-NATHA, a Tirthankara, 6 Table

NANDIMITRA, a Srutikevalin, xxxvi

Naradas, 5, 127 (list)

Naraka-gatim 45

Narayanas, 5, 126 (list), 139

Nara-putta, See Mahavira

Nayas, 112, 116

NEMICHANDRA SIDDHANTA-CHAKRA-VARTIN quoted, 79, 104, 105

NEMI-NATHA, a Tirthankara, xxxiii, 6 Table

Nidra, 94

Nihsankita, 108

Nihsrita, 62

Nimisha, 15

Nirdesh, 55

Nirgrantha, xxx, xxxi f., xxxvii

Nirjara, 37, 40, 98-9

Nirmana-nama-karma, 33

Nirvana, xxiii 2, 29, 37, 67

Nirvedani, 138

Nirvichikitsita, 108

Nirvikalpa-darsana, 115

Niryuktis, commentaries, xxxviii

Nisarga, 55-6

Nischaya, 62, 107

Nischaya-samyag-darsana, 54

Nishidika-prakirnaka, 145 (contents)

Nishkankshita, 108

Nisrita, 62

Niyama-sara-gatha quoted, 78-80, 86, 89

NON-INJURY, importance of, 70; social effects of, 72, See also Ahimsa

NON-SCRIPTURAL knowledge, 63

NON-SOUL. See Ajiva

NON-UNIVERSE, 22, 119

NUNS, not admitted by the Digambaras, xxxix n.

Nyagrodha-parimandala, 34

Nyaya, Gautama's, 117

Nyaya-bindu, 118

 

OBSERVANCES, the five, 66

OCCUPATIONS, wordly, abandonment of, 70

Om, 3

OMNISCIENCE, 106

OMNISCIENT SOULS,    qualities of, 2, 129 f.

 

Pada-nama-karma, 33

Padarthas, xxxviii, 7, 41 f., 101, 137

PADMAPRABHA, a Tirthankara, 6 Table

Painnas, xxxviii, 146

Pakshika-Sravaka, 68

PANCHA PAHARO, xxviii

Panca-parameshthi-puja, 134

Pancha-parameshthin, 2 (supreme saints)

Panchastikaya-gatha quoted, 43, 77, 79, 82-8, 90, 93, 96, 99-101, 104, 108, 111

Papa, 41, 101

para-ghata, 35

Paramagama, the, 135

Paramanu, 22, 88, 90

Paramarthika-pratyaksha, 113

Paramatma-prakasa quoted, 78, 84

Parameshthings, Five, 2

Parigraha,-tyaga, 70, 97, 134

Parikarmas, xxxvi, 138 (contents of)

Pariksha, 62

Pariksa-mukha, 118

Parinama, 81, 100

Parisaha-jaya, 98

Parisamkhyana, 131

Paroksha, 113

Parokshabhasa, 116

PARSVANATHA, Tirthankara, xix, 6 Table, 50

PARTS, substances and their, 16

Paryapta, 35

Paryaya, 11

Paryayarthika-naya, 116

PASSIONS, 56

Patali-putra, Council of, xxxvii, 145

PATNA, see PATALIPUTRA

Patavalis, Jain, xxxvi

PAVA-PURI, Mahavira's death at, xxviii f.

PAVOLINI, Prof. P., xvi

PENAL CODE, Indian, 72

PENITENCE. See Prayaschitta

PERCEPTION, right, 49, 52; in logic, 61-2, 113

PERFECTIONS, four infinite, 1

PERSECUTIONS, of Jainism, xxxviii f.

PERSONS, great, see Salakapurusha

Phalabhasa, 116

PHILOSOPHY, basis of xix; jaina principles of, x, xl

PILGRIMS, xxviii

PLANETS, influence of, 141

POINTS OF VIEW (neyas), 117

POLITICS talk of, 94

Poshadhopavasa, 69

Prabha, 120

Prabhavana, 108

Pradesa, 16, 24, 30, 85, 88-90, 95

Prakirnakas, xxxviii, 135 (contents of), 143, 16

PRAKRIT, Jain use of, xxv

Prakriti, 30, 50, 95

Pramada 94-5

Pramada-bhava, 51

Pramana, 112, 115

Pramanabhasa, 115

Pramana-naya-tattvalokalamkara, 118

Pramatta-virata, 51

Prana, 82

Prana-vada-purva, 141 (contents)

Prasna-vyakarana-anga, 137 (contents)

Prathamanuyoga, xxxvi, 139

Pratiharya, 130, 143

Pratikramana, 132, 133

Pratikramana-prakirnaka, 143 (contents)

Pratimas, 50, 67

Prati-narayanas, 5, 126 (list), 139

Pratindra, 145

Pratipatti, 62

Pratishthapana, 97, 134

Prati-vasudevas, 5, 126

Pratyabh jnana, 113

Pratyaknyana, 133

Pratyakhyana-pura, 141 (contents)

Pratyaksha, 113

Pratyakshabhasa, 1154

Pratyeka 35

Prayaschitta, 131

PREDESTINATION, denied, 29

Preraka, 14

PRIDE, eight kinds of, 55, 108

PRINCIPLES, xxiii, 1 f. 7, 37, 93 (seven), 101 (nine)

Prishtha-nama-karma, 33

PSYCHICAL condition, 39 f.

Pudgala, 13, 20-1, 24, 84, 87-9, 136

Pundarika-prakirnaka, 144 (contents)

Punya, 41, 101

Puranas, of the Hindus, 125

Purushartha-siddhy-upaya quoted, 81, 107, 134

Purva-chara, 113-14

Purva-gatas, 139 (contents)

Purvas fourteen, xxxvi

PUSHPADANTA, a Tirthankara, 6 Table

 

QUALITIES and attributes, 11, 84; of saints,129 f.

QUALITY, category of, xxxii

QUATERNARY, infinite, 20

 

Raga, 38

RAJAGRIHA, xxviii

RAJAMATI, princess, xxxiv

Rajju, 56, 119f.

Rasa, 33

Rasa-parityaga, 131

Rashtra-katha, 94

Rati, 38

Ratna-karanda-sravakacharu quoted, 108

Ratri-bhukta-tyaga, 69

REASONING, modes of, 113-16

REAY, Lord, 73

REFLECTION, 62

RE-INCARNATION, 28, 30

RELIGION, the question for, xix; "creed" a synonym, xx; Jain c. I,.77f.

RENUNCIATION, 133

"Repertorie d' Epigraphie Jaina," xvi

RESPONSIBILITY, man's, 3

RESTRAINT, the threefold, 66

Right conviction, 52-7

Riju mati, 64, 110

RISHABHA, a Tirthankara, xxxiii, 6 Table

Ritu 15

RITUAL, purpose and definition of, xxi; introductory remarks on, xxiv; ain, 74f.

Rudras, 5, 127 (list)

Rupa-gata-chulika 142 (contents)

 

Sabda, 113

SACHCHAKA, xxxii

Sachi, 34

Sachitta-tyaga, 69

Sadhana, 55, 56

Sadharana, 35

Sadhu, 2, 80

Sagara, 57

Sagara-dharmamrita, 68

SAGES, classes of, 2

Saha-chara, 113, 114

SAINTS, characteristics of, 129

Sakalendriya, 136

Sakara-jnana,, 109

Salaka-purusha, 126 (list)

Sal-lekhana, 144

Sama-chatura, 34

Samanna-phala Sutta, xxx

Samantabhadra Acharya quoted, 78, 108

Samanya, 115

Samavaya-anga, 136 (contents)

Samaya, 15

Samaya-sara-kalasa quoted, 96, 102

Samavika, 69, 132

Samayika-patha quoted, 79

Samayika-prakirnaka, 143 (contents)

SAMBHAVA-NATHA, a Tirthankara, 6 Table

"Samghayani," 128

Samhanana-nama-karma, 34

Samiti, 97, 134

Samkhya, 57

Samkhya, 58

Samkhyabhasa, 116

Samkshepa-drishti, 55

Samsara, xxvii, 11, 77, 97

Samsara-stha, 83

Samsaya, 94, 115

Samstava-prakirnaka, 143 (contents)

Samsthana-nama-karma, 34

Samudghata, 90

Samvara, 37, 39, f., 96, 98

Samvatsara, 15

Samvedani, 138

Samvyavaharika-pratyaksha, 113

Samyag-darsana, 52, 55

Samyag-jnana, 30, 52

Samyag-mohaniya-karma, 49

Samyak-charitra, 52

Samyakta, 56, 62

Samyaktva, 49

Samyama, 56, 132

Samyamin, 59, 64

Sanghata-nama-karma, 34

Sanjna, 61

Sanjnin, 56

Sanka, 50

SANKARA ACHARYA, Jains persecuted by, xxxviii

Sankshepa-drishti, 55

SANSKRIT, Jain use of, xxv

Santi, 50

SANTI-NATHA, a Tirthankara, 6 Table, 50

Sapta-bhangi, 117, 140