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By Acharya Amrit Chandra Suri

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Acharya Amrit Chandra Suri
Translated by Ajit Prasada
Exposition of Purushartha-Siddhyupaya.

1 Victory to that Supreme Intelligence, where, a it were in a mirror, is reflected the chain of all substances, in all theri infinite conditions.

2 I bow to Anekant (Jaina Philosophy), which is the root basis of the Highest Scripture, which dispels the wrong notions about elephant, of person born blind, and which removes the contradictions amongst all those who entertain one-sided or limited points of view.

3 After having carefully studied the Highest Scripture, which affords a matchless vision of the three worlds, I proceed to expound, for the sake of scholars, this (treatise) Purushartha-Siddhyapaya.

4 True philosophy is promulgated in the Universe, by those who, themselves conversant with the real and the practical aspects, dispel the difficult-to-be-removed ignorance of pupils by an exposition of both the absolute and the relative aspects of things.

5 In this connection, Nishchaya is defined as the Real, and Vyavahara as unreal. Almost the whole world has its face against Knowledge of the real aspect.

6 The high saints point out Vyavahara for the guidance of the ignorant. A discourse is of no avail to one, who knows Vyavahara only.

7 Just as a cat represents a lion to one who has not known as lion, similarly Vyavahara alone is Nishchaya unto him who does not know what Nischaya is.

8 That student alone achieves the full benefit of teaching, who, having well understood both Vyavahara and Nishchaya, in their true nature, becomes neutral.

9 Purusha (the soul) is pure consciousness. It is free from touch, smell, taste and colour, has its own attributes and conditions, and is possessed of manifestation, disappearance and continuity.

10 Undergoing, through illusory knowledge, constant changes since eternity, it causes and experiences its own thought activities.

11 When Jiva, having got rid of all illusion, attains everlasting consciousness, it then becomes one who has accomplished all that was to be accomplished, and is possessed of the success resulting from right exertion.

12 Again, other molecules of matter, coming in contact with the stimulus of (impure) thought-activities emanating from the Jiva, themselves turn into the form of Karma.

13 To a Jiva, modifying itself by its own (impure) thought activities, the material Karma (in operation) acts only as a stimulus.

14 Thus, though Jiva is not identified with the thought activities caused by Karmas, yet to the ignorant it appears to be so identified. This illusion is verily the seed of samsara.

15 Having got rid of the above perversity and having well realized the nature of the Self, steadfastness therein is the means to the acquisition of the object of Jiva.

16 The life-routine of such saints as follow this path, as are ever averse to questionable conduct, and have adopted complete renunciation, is uncommon indeed.

17 He who, in spite of repeated dissertations, in unable to accept the path of absolute renunciation, should in that event, be lectured upon partial renunciation.

18 The unwise (preceptor) who without discoursing upon the "order of saints" only lectures upon "order of the householder" is, according to the saying of the worshipful, deserving of censure.

19 Because, on account of the ill-regulated discourses of the unwise (preceptor), even the disciple, who had pitched up his resolution high, is made to content himself only with a low position and is thus misled.

20 And, for him also the three-fold path of liberation, consisting of right belief, right knowledge, and right conduct, is to be constantly followed according to his capacity.

21 Again, one must, by all possible means, first attain right belief; because only on the acquisition thereof knowledge and conduct become (right).

22 One should always have firm belief in Jiva, Ajiva, and the other principles, as they are, free from perverse notions. It is the nature of the Self.

23 One should never entertain any doubt as to whether all these many-sided views of things proceeding from the omniscient, are true or untrue.

24 The true believer should not desire worldly greatness in this life or the position of a Chakravarti or Narayana in the life hereinafter; nor should he cling to other faiths, disfigured by the adoption of one-sided theories.

25 He should not exhibit a feeling of disgust at the various conditions caused by hunger, thirst, cold, heat, etc. or at the sight of excrement etc. This termed Nirvichkitsita Anga.

26 In this world, he who has faith in the Tattwas (the seven principles) should never have a superstitious belief in a fallacious scripture, an unreal doctrine, or a false deity.

27 To evolve the virtue of Upavrinhana, one should ever cultivate the true nature of Jiva by meditating upon tenderness etc, and should also try to cover the defects of others.

28 In case of deviation from the path of righteousness, under the influence of anger, pride, the sexual passion etc., he should strengthen his own knowledge and that of others by argument.

29 One should ever cherish feelings of deep affection for religion, which brings about the treasure of spiritual happiness, and for the principle of non-injury, and also for coreligionists.

30 One should ever make his own self radiant by the light of the three jewels, and should add to the glory of Jainism by exceptional charity, austerity, worship of Jina, the Conqueror, and by learning.

31 Those who have thus attained right belief mastered the system of Jaina Philosophy and the rules of logic, and are ever intent on self-evolution, should devote themselves to the acquisition of right knowledge, after having understood it with diligence through scriptures, arguments, and contemplation.

32 Although Right Knowledge is contemporaneous with Right belief, still it should be separately meditated upon because there is distinction between the two on account of their different characteristics.

33 The Conquerors have called Right knowledge the effect and Right belief the cause. Therefore, it is desirable to be striving after knowledge on attaining Right belief.

34 Although Right belief and Right knowledge are contemporaneous, there is yet clear relation of cause and effect between them, just as there is between a lamp and its light.

35 Effort should be made to understand the existing many-natured principles. Such knowledge free from doubt, perversity, and vagueness, is really the very quality of the self.

36 Let there be a devotion to knowledge, with a correct use of the words, with a full acquaintance of their meanings, with a combination of both, at proper times, with due respect, in proper manner, accompanied with great zeal and without concealment.

37 Those who have got over wrong belief, have come to know the full significance of the Tattwas through accurate knowledge, and who are firm and unshakeable, must always follow Right Conduct.

38 Conduct which follows ignorance can never be designated as `Right'; therefore, the acquisition of Right Conduct is lectured upon subsequent to "Knowledge".

39 Thus, by restraint of all censurable movements, is attained such clear and unattached conduct, as is above all passion. This the very nature of the self.

40 As distinguished by total or limited abstinence from injuring, falsehood, theft, unchastity, and worldly attachment, Conduct is of two kinds.

41 When engaged in complete abstention one becomes a saint, the personification of pure Jiva. He who is engaged in partial restraint only, would be a disciple.

42 All this indulgence is "Himsa" because in injures the real nature of Jiva. Falsehood, etc., are only given by way of illustration, for the instruction of the disciple.

43 Any injury whatsoever to the material or conscious vitalities caused through passionate activity of mind, body or speech is Himsa, assuredly.

44 Assuredly, the non appearance of attachment and other (passions) is Ahimsa, and their appearance is Himsa. This is a summary of the Jaina Scripture.

45 There never is Himsa when vitalities are injured, is a person is not moved by any kind of passions and is carefully following Right Conduct.

46 And, if one acts carelessly, moved by the influence of passions, there certainly advances Himsa in front of him whether a living being is killed or not.

47 Because under the influence of passion, the person first injures the self, through the self; whether there is subsequently an injury caused to another being or not.

48 The want of abstinence from Himsa, and indulgence in Himsa, both constitute Himsa; and thus whenever there is careless activity of mind, body, or speech, there always is injury to vitalities.

49 A mere contact with external objects, will not make a person guilty of Himsa. Even then, for the purification of thought, one ought to avoid external causes leading to Himsa.

50 He, who, ignorant of the real point of view, takes shelter therein in practice, is a fool, and being indifferent to external conduct, he destroys all practical discipline.

51 One who does not actually commit Himsa, becomes responsible for the consequences of Himsa; and another who actually commits Himsa, would not be liable for the fruit of Himsa.

52 To one, trifling Himsa brings in time serious result; to another grievous Himsa at time of fruition causes small consequence.

53 Even when jointly committed by two persons the same Himsa at the time of fruition, curiously enough, causes severe retribution to one, and a mild one to another.

54 Because of intention, Himsa is culpable sometimes before it is committed, sometimes at the time of commission, sometimes even after it has been committed, and sometimes for attempt to commit it, even when it is not committed, because of the intention to commit Himsa.

55 Himsa is committed by one, and there are many who suffer the consequences; many commit Himsa, and only one suffers the consequence for Himsa.

56 Himsa gives to one at the time of fruition, the consequence of Himsa only; to another that same Himsa gives considerable Ahimsa reward.

57 In result, Ahimsa gives to one the consequence of Himsa; to another Himsa gives the benefit of Ahimsa. It is not otherwise.

58 In this forest of various points of view, difficult to be traversed, only the masters who have a through acquaintance with the application of different view-points, can help those who are ignorant of the Path.

59 The wheel of Jain view-points, extremely shapredged, and difficult to be warded off, would, when used by misguided intellects, cut off (their) heads, quickly.

60 Having thus correctly understood what is meant by Himsa, its consequence, its victim, and its perpetrator, persons who embrace (the doctrine) should always avoid Himsa, to the best of their capacity.

61 Those who desire avoiding Himsa, should, first of all take care to renounce wine, flesh, honey, and the five Udumbar fruits.

62 Wine stupefies the mind; one whose mind is stupefied forgets piety; and the person who forgets piety commits Himsa without hesitation.

63 And wine is said to be the birth-place of many creatures which are generated in liquor; those who are given up to wine, necessarily commit Himsa.

64 Pride, fear, disgust, ridicule, ennui, grief, sex passion, anger, etc., are forms of Himsa; and all these are concomitants of wine.

65 Flesh cannot be procured without causing destruction of life; one who uses flesh, therefore commits Himsa, unavoidably.

66 If the flesh be that of a buffalo, ox, etc., which has died of itself, even then Himsa is caused by the crushing of creatures spontaneously born therein.

67 Whether pieces of flesh are raw, or cooked, or in the process of cooking, spontaneously-born creatures of the same genus are constantly being generated there.

68 He who eats, or touches, a raw, or a cooked piece of flesh, certainly kills a group of spontaneously-born creatures constantly gathering together.

69 Even the smallest drop of honey in the world very often represents the death of bees; the fool who uses honey is a great destroyer.

70 Even if one uses honey which has been obtained by some trick from honey comb, or which has itself dropped down from it, there is Himsa in that case also, because of the destruction of creatures of spontaneous birth born there.

71 Honey, wine, butter, and flesh are extreme fermentations. Those with vows would not eat them. Therein (are born) creatures of the same genus.

72 The two Udumbaras (Gular and fig) and fruits of Pipal, Pakar, and Banyan are birth places of mobile beings. Therefore Himsa of those creatures is caused by eating them.

73 Again, it they, the above five fruits be dry, and free from mobile beings, on account of efflux of time, even then in using them there is Himsa, caused by the existence of an excessive desire for them.

74 Those pure intellects, who renounce the above eight things, which cause painful and insufferable calamity, render themselves worthy of Jain discipline.

75 Those, who, even after listening to the doctrine of Ahimsa, are not able to renounce the Himsa of immobile beings, should at least give up the Himsa of mobile beings.

76 Renunciation of nine-fold commission, by self, through agent, and approval, by body, speech, and mind, is Perfect Renunciation (Autsargiki Nivritti). Imperfect renunciation (Apavadiki Nivritti) is of various kinds.

77 Householders possessed of appropriate articles of enjoyment have to injure a limited number of one-sensed beings. They should desist from causing destruction of other immobile beings

78 Those who have been impressed with the highest Ahimsa-elixir, which leads to immortality, should not be distressed on seeing the improper behavior of the ignorant.

79 "Sacred religion is very subtle, and there is no wrong in committing Himsa for the sake of religion." (People) should not allow themselves to be thus deceived in the name of religion, and should ever kill embodied beings.

80 Never entertain the wrong idea that religion flourishes through gods, and that therefore everything may be offered to them. Do not kill embodied beings, under such perverted judgment.

81 Animals should not be killed for guests in the belief that there is no harm in killing goats, etc., for the sake of persons deserving respect.

82 With the idea that a meal prepared from the slaughter of one living being is preferable to that produced by the destruction of many lives, one should never kill a living being of a higher grade.

83 Beings which kill others should not be killed in the belief that the destruction of one of them leads to the protection of many others.

84 "These kill many lives, and accumulate grave sin" Doing this act of mercy, those who injure others should not be killed.

85 "Those is great suffering will on being killed soon obtain relief from agony." Do not even kill the distressed one by having grasped the sword of such misconception.

86 It is difficult to obtain happiness. The happy shall, if killed, continue to be happy. Do not please adopt the weapon of this (false) reasoning for killing those who are happy.

87 A disciple desirous of piety should not cut off the head of his own preceptor when he, by means of constant practice, has attained such perfection of concentration, as leads to a good condition of life.

88 Do not believe in the doctrine of "pot-breaking immediate salvation" inculcated by Kharpatikas, impelled by their thirst for small riches; into inducing such belief in their pupils.

89 One should not kill himself by zealously giving one's own flesh as food to another starving person, seen approaching in front.

90 What person is there who, having a clear intellect, having served teachers well-versed in the various points of view, having realized the essence of the Jaina religion and having adopted Ahimsa, would yield to the delusions (set forth above.)

91 Wherever any wrong statement is made through Pramada Yoga (careless activity of body, mind, or speech), it is certainly known as falsehood. It is divided into 4 kinds.

92 A statement by which the existence of a thing with reference to its position, time, and nature is denied, is the first kind of falsehood; for example, to say "Deva Datta is not here," (when he is present).

93 Where a things does not exist, with reference to the position, time, and nature of other objects, and it is said to exist, the statement is the second kind of falsehood e.g., to say "pitcher is here" (when it is not actually there).

94 The third kind of falsehood is that, where an existing thing is represented as something different from what it really is, for example, when a horse is said to be a cow.

95 Speech of 3 kinds, Garhita, condemnable; Savady, sinful, or Apriya, disagreeable, is ordinarily speaking, said to be the fourth kind of falsehood.

96 Garhita speech is said to be all that, which is backbiting, harsh, unbecoming, nonsensical, or otherwise uncanonical.

97 All speech which makes another engage in piercing, cutting, beating, sloughing, trading, stealing, etc., is Savadya, sinful as it leads to destruction of life, etc.

98 Know all that as Apriya, which causes uneasiness, fear, pain, hostility, grief, quarrel, or anguish of mind to another person.

99 Pramatta Yoga, the one (chief) cause (of Himsa) in present in all these (speeches) here. Therefore Himsa comes in, certainly, in falsehood also.

100 Pramatta Yoga having been stated to be the cause of all false speech, a sermon, preaching the renouncement (of vices) and the performance of religious duties, would not be a falsehood, (even if it should be distasteful, or cause mental pain to the listener).

101 Those who are not able to give up such Savadya untruth as is unavoidable in arranging for articles of use should renounce all the other untruth, for ever.

102 The taking, by Pramatta yoga, of objects which have not been given, is to be deemed theft, and that is Himsa because it is the cause of injury.

103 He, who seizes the property of another person deprives him of his vitalities, for all objects are external vitalities of men.

104 There is no exclusivity between Himsa and theft. It is well included in theft, because in taking what belongs to another (there is) Pramatta Yoga.

105 Nor is there the defect of overlapping. There is no (Himsa), when passionless saints take in Karmic molecules because of the absence of Pramatta Yoga, the chief motive.

106 Those also who do not feel strong enough to refrain from taking well-water, etc., should totally abstain from taking anything else which is not given to them.

107-108 Abraham is copulation arising from sexual desire. It is attended with the killing of life all round, and Himsa is therefore present in the act. Just as a hot rod of iron burns up the sesamum seed filled in a tube in which it is introduced, in the same way many beings are killed in the vagina during copulation.

109 Again, whatever indulgence of the sex-passion is had in unnatural ways on account of lust, it always brings about Himsa because it has had its rise in desire etc.

110 Those, who, because of attachment, cannot renounce their own wives, they also should totally abstain from enjoyment other females.

111 Attachment itself should be understood to be Parigraha. Attachment is affectionate regard arising from the operation of Moha Karma.

112 This definition of Parigraha as attachment is comprehensively inclusive. One who is under the influence of attachment is, although he has renounced all other possessions, "with property".

113 If this be so, then there can be no external Parigraha at all. It certainly is the cause of attachment.

114 This is over-lapping and will include the drawing in of Karmic molecules by passionless saints as Parigraha. This is not so, because there is no attachment.

115 Very briefly speaking, Parigraha is of two kinds, internal and external. The first is of 14 kinds, and the second is of two kinds.

116 The fourteen internal possessions, attachments, are wrong belief, sexual inclinations, the six defects, laughter etc., and the four passions.

117 External Parigraha is of two kinds with reference to living and non-living objects. All this Parigraha never excludes Himsa.

118 The Acharyas (preceptor saints), who are well versed in Jaina Philosophy, call the renunciation of Parigraha of both sorts as Ahimsa, and the appropriation of Parigraha of two sorts as Himsa.

119 Internal attachment is proved to be Himsa because of its being a form of Himsa. Attachment of external objects certainly establishes the fact of Himsa.

120, 121, 122, 123 If this be so, there would be no difference between a cat and a younger deer. No, it is not so, there is a difference as to the degree of attachment. Attachment is weak in the young deer who lives on green blades of grass; it is strong in the cat which destroys a host of mice. The effect is certainly influenced by the cause, like the difference in desire for sweetness in milk or sugar. In the case of one who likes milk, which is moderately sweet, the desire for sweetness, is feable. That desire is said to be intense in the case of one who likes sugar, which is extremely sweet.

124, 125 & 126 At first for acquiring belief in Tattwarthas, the principles, as they are, wrong belief, and the four Passions of the first degree, which prevent Right Belief, should be got rid of. Again having suppressed the passions of second (degree) which certainly obstruct partial conduct, laymen approach partial vows. all remaining internal attachments should be suppressed, with self-exertion through humility, contentment and such meditations.

127 All external attachments, whether living or nonliving should be avoided; because improper non control is brought about by external possession even.

128 And if one is unable to wholly renounce cattle, corn, servants, buildings, wealth etc, he also, should at least limit them; because renunciation is the Right principle.

129 Those who take their meals at night cannot avoid Himsa. therefore abstainers from Himsa, should give up night-eating also.

130 Absence of vow, in due to the influence of passions and Himsa is not thereby excluded. How is it possible then to avoid Himsa when food is taken day and night.

131-132-133 If that be, so, then one may give up taking food in the day, by eating at night only, one would not be committing Himsa at all times. No, it is not so. There is stronger desire in eating at night than in eating in the day, as in the eating of a morsel of flesh and the eating of a morsel of grain. How can one avoid Himsa when food is taken without the light of the sun; even when a lamp is lighted, minute insects get mixed up with eatable.

134 Why discuss further. It is established that he who has renounced night-eating, through mind, body or speech, always observes Ahimsa.

135 Thus, those who desire self-advancement make constant exertions, here, in the there-fold path liberation, and attain salvation without delay.

136 Just as the encircling walls guard towns, so do Sheelas (supplementary vows) protect the Anu-Vratas. Therefore in order to practise the Vratas, the Sheelas also should be practiced.

137 Having fixed the limits from well-known objects, in all directions, east etc., one should steadily practise Dig Vrata.

138 He who thus confines his activities within the limited directions, follows complete vow of Ahimsa as regards what is beyond those limits, because of total absence of non restraint there.

139 Then, again one should fix a limit (within those limits) for a fixed time, to village, market, house, street etc., and thus follow Desha Vrata.

140 The pure-minded, who thus confines the extent of his activities practises absolute Ahimsa for that time by renouncing all Himsa possible in the vast space which has been given up.

141 One should never think of hunting, victory, defeat, battle, adultery, theft, etc., because they only lead to sin.

142 Sinful advice should never be given to persons living upon art, trade, writing, agriculture, arts and crafts, service, and industry.

143 One should not without necessity dig grounds, uproot trees, trample lawns, sprinkle water etc., nor pluck leaves fruit, and flowers.

144 One should be careful not to give instruments of Himsa, such as knife, poison, fire, plough, sword bow etc.

145 One may not listen to, accept, or teach such bad stories as increase attachment etc., and are full of absurdities.

146 Renounce gambling from a distance. It is the first of all evils, the destroyer of contentment, the home of deceit, and the abode of theft and falsehood.

147 He who deliberately renounces all other unnecessary sins, leads his Ahimsa vow ceaselessly up to admirable victory.

148 By giving up "Rag-dvesh" affection and repulsion and observing equanimity in all objects, one should practise Samayika, equanimity, continuously, which brings about a realisation of the true nature of Self.

149 This Samayik must be regularly practised at the end of each night and day. If it is performed at other times it is not improper, but is beneficial.

150 Those who have attained equanimity have complete vows, because of the renunciation of all sinful activities, although their Charitra-moha-karma (which obstructs a due performance of pure conduct) is in operation.

151 To strengthen the daily practice of Samayik Discipline, one must observe fasting twice each fortnight.

152 Free from all work, and having given up affection for the body etc. one should commence fasting at middle of the day previous to Proshadha day, (which is the eighth and fourteenth day of each lunar fortnight).

153 One should then retire to a secluded spot, renounce all sinful activities, abstain from indulgence in all objects of the senses, and observe due restraint of body, speech and mind.

154, 155, 156 He should pass the day, wrapped in spiritual contemplating; perform Samayika at sunset, vanquish sleep by self-study, and thus pass the night on a clear mat, He should rise in the morning, perform the necessary duties of the time, and engaged in worship of Jina, as prescribed, with Prasuk objects, (which have no living germs in them). The day, the second night, and the half of the third day should carefully be passed in the manner stated above.

157 He who having set himself free from all sinful activities, passes 16 Yamas (48 hours) in the above manner certainly observes the vow of Ahimsa in its thoroughness.

158, 159, 160 On account of Bhoga and Upabhoga, Himsa of immobile beings only is caused. By renunciation of Bhoga and Upabhoga, not the slightest Himsa is occasioned. There is no falsehood, because of the control of speech; there is no stealing, because of the abstinence from all appropriation there is no incontinence (Abrahma), because of abstinence from all sexual intercourse. There is no attachment (Parigraha), because of the absence of the feeling of attachment even to one's body. Having thus got rid of all Himsa, he practically reaches the stage of a Mahavrati; but he cannot attain the spiritual stage of a Saint, because of the operation of Right-Conduct-Preventing Karma.

161 One with partial vows incurs Himsa arising from the use of articles of Bhoga, and Upabhoga, and not otherwise. He should therefore ascertain the reality of things, and renounce these two also, in accordance with his own capacity.

162 The use of all Anant-Kaya vegetable must be given up, because in destroying one, infinite (one-sensed living beings) are killed.

163 Butter is the birth place of numerous Jivas. It should also be renounced. Even when its substance is pure, it has been declared to be prohibited.

164 Having due regard to his own powers, the wise should even renounce those objects of enjoyment, which are not prohibited; and in respect of those even which he cannot renounce, he should limit the enjoyment by day or night.

165 Again having regard to one's capacity at the time, a further limit to the limits already set, should be made every day.

166 He who being thus contented with a few limited enjoyments, renounces the vast majority of them, observes Ahimsa par-excellence because of abstention from considerable Himsa.

167 For mutual good, one possessed of the qualifications of a donor, should, in a proper manner, give a portion of appropriate things to a saint, who is (naked) like one at birth.

168 The manner is said to be, respectful welcome, high seat, washing the feet, worship, bowing, purity of thought, speech, and body, and purity of food.

169 The qualifications of a donor are, disregard of worldly benefit, forbearance, sincerity, absence of jealously, sorrow, joy, and pride.

170 Only such things should be given (as food) as help in the prosecution of studies, and the due observance of austerities, and which do not bring about fondness, disgust, incontinence, intoxication, pain, fear, etc.

171 The recipients are of three classes, according to their respective possession of qualities leading to Moksha. They are true believers without vows, with partial vows, and with full vows.

172 In making a gift one gets over greed, which is a form of Himsa, and hence gifts made to a worthy recipient amount to a renunciation of Himsa.

173 Why would one be not called greedly if he does not offer (food) to a saint who visits his home, who is well qualified and who, acting like a honey-bee, accepts gifts without causing any injury to others.

174 When one gives to a saint food out of what he had prepared for himself, such thoughtfully offered gift, which is made without any disregard or regret, with suppressed greed, is itself Ahimsa.

175 One should ever be devotedly thinking of Sallekhana at the end, that "it is only this which would enable me to carry my wealth of piety with me."

176 "I shall certainly observe Sallekhna properly at the approach of death," is the thought one should constantly have and thus be practising the vow prematurely.

177 On account of the absence of any emotion, there is no suicide by one acting in this manner, on the certain approach of death, because by the observance of Sallekhana, the passions are attenuated.

178 He who, actuated by passions, puts an end to his life by stopping breath, or by water, fire, poison, or weapons, is certainly guilty of suicide.

179 In the practice of Sallekhana (renunciation of the body), all passions, which cause Himsa, are subdued, and hence Sallekhana is said to lead to Ahimsa.

180 Like a damsel desiring a husband, the goddess of final beatitude herself longingly chooses him as a husband, who for protection of the Vratas, ceaselessly observes all the Sheelas.

181 The following 70 defects, five in respect of each of the (5) vratas, (8) Sheelas and Right belief, and which prevent their prescribed purity, should be avoided.

182 Scepticism, desire, disgust, praise of wrong believers, and thinking admiringly of them, are the defects of Right Belief.

183 Multilating, beating, typing up, overloading, withholding food or drink, are 5 transgressions of the vow of Ahimsa.

184 False preaching, disclosing secret, forgery, branch of trust, and divulging inferences drawn from behaviour or gestures (are transgressions of truth).

185 Adulteration, abetment of theft, receiving stolen property, illegal traffic, and false weights and measures (are 5 defects of the vow of non-stealing).

186 Intense sexual desire, unnatural sexual indulgence, arranging marriage of those outside the family, association with immoral married or unmarried women, are 5 (breaches of the vow of chastity).

187 Exceeding the limits regarding house and land, gold, and silver, cattle and corn, man and woman servant, clothes and utensils, are 5 (breaches of the vow of limited possessions).

188 Exceeding the limits above, below, and in (8) directions, increasing boundaries, and forgetting the limits, are said to be 5 (breaches) of the first Sheela (Dig-Vrata).

189 Sending, detaining, speaking out, making gestures, throwing articles, (beyond) limits (are) 5 (breaches) or the second Sheela (Desha Vrata).

190 Uttering obscene words, gesticulating with obscene words, misuse of articles of use, gossip, and acting unthinkingly (are) 5 (breaches) of the third Sheela (Anartha-Danda-Vrata).

191 Misdirection of speech, mind and body; lack of interest, and forgetting due observances are 5 (breaches) of the fourth Sheela (Samayik).

192 Taking up articles, using seats, passing excrements, without looking at the sweeping, forgetting the rules, and lack of interest are 5 (breaches) of Upavasa (fasting).

193 Eating articles having life, articles mixed with those having life, articles in contact with those having life, articles to well cooked and aphrodiciacal food are 5 transgressions of the sixth Sheela (Bhogopabhoga Parimana).

194 Delegation of host's duties, placing the food on Sachitta (with life) articles, covering the food with Sachitta, not serving meal at proper time, lack of interest are transgressions in Achitta-dana (Atithi-Samvibhaga).

195 A desire to live, a desire to die, attachment to friends, recollection of pleasures, and desire for future pleasures, these 5 are (the transgressions) at the time of Sallekhana.

196 One with control, who has understood these transgressions, and has avoided them, soon attains the spiritual goal through faultless right faith, vows, and Sheelas.

197 Austerity is also said, in the Scriptures, to be helpful to Moksha because it is included in Right Conduct. Therefore it ought to be practised by those who have a well-controlled mind, and who do not ignore their capacities.

198 Fasting, reduced diet, sleeping and resting in lonely places, renouncing the Rasas (Milk, curd, ghee, oil sugar, and salt) bodily suffering, mental vow to accept food under undisclosed conditions, are external austerities and should be practised.

199 Respect, service, expiation, renunciation, study and concentration are the internal austerities which should be observed.

200 Having due regard to one's own status and capacity, a (householder) should practise the conduct of saint, as described in the Scriptures.

201 Equanimity, praising, bowing, repentance and renunciation, and giving up attachment for the body are the six (daily) duties, which should be observed.

202. One should carefully observe the three controls, proper control of body, proper control of speech, and proper control of mind.

203. Careful movement, careful speech, careful eating, careful placing and removal of things, careful evacuation of excrement, are the (5) Samitis to be observed.

204 Forgiveness, humanity, straight forwardness truth, contentment, restraint, austerities, charity, non attachment, and chastity are the (10 observances to be followed.

205 Transitoriness, helplessness, transmigration, loneliness, separateness, impurity, inflow, stoppage and shedding (of Karmas), Universe, rarity of right path and the true nature of Right path, (these 12 meditations) should be contemplated continuously.

206, 207 and 208 (1) Hunger, (2) thirst, (3) Cold, (4) heat, (5) insect bite, (6) nudity, (7) ennui, (8) women, (9) walking, (10) sitting, (11) resting on hard earth, (12) abuse, (13) beating, (14) begging, (15) non-obtaining, (16) disease, (17) contact with thorny shrubs etc., (18) dirt, (19) respect and disrespect, (20) conceit of knowledge, (21) lack of knowledge, (22) slack belief, are 22 sufferings. These should be ever endured without any feeling of vexation, by one who desires to get rid of all cause for pain.

209 Ratna-Traya, the three Jewels (Right belief, knowledge and conduct) should be followed, even partially, every moment of time without cessation by a householder desirous of everlasting liberation.

210 With a determined continuous effort, one should, when the opportunity for full attainment of Ratna-Traya is available, adopt the order of saints, and make it complete, without delay.

211 Even when Ratna-Traya is partially followed, whatever bondage of Karma there is, is due to its antithesis (the passions), because Ratna-Traya is assuredly the way to liberation, and can never be the cause of bondage.

212, 213, 214 (In every thought activity) there is no bondage so far as there is right belief; there is bondage so far as there is passion. (In every thought activity) there is no bondage so far as there is knowledge; there is bondage so far as there is passion.

215 Pradesha Bandha, bondage of Karmic molecules is due to soul's vibratory activity, and Sthiti Bandha, duration bondage, is due to passions. But Right Belief, Knowledge and Conduct have neither the nature of vibrations nor of passions.

216 Right belief is conviction in one's own Self. Knowledge is a knowledge of one's own Self; conduct is absorption in one's own Self. How can there be Bondage by these.

217 Whatever bondage of Tirthankar Karma or Aharaka Karma, has been described in the Scripture as due to Right Belief and Conduct, would not appear to be a mistake to those who are learned in the points of view.

218 In presence of Right Belief and Conduct, only vibratory activity and passions cause the bondage of Tirthankara and Aharaka Karmas. Therefore they (Rigth belief and Conduct) are quite unconcerned in this matter.

219-220 How then is there the bondage of good Karmas like celestial age, etc., to saint following Ratna Traya, (a fact) well known to all persons, possible.

(The answer is). Ratna Traya is the cause of Nirvana only, and of nothing else. The good Karmas which inflow, are due to the Aparadha, Defect of Shubhopayoga, good thought activity.

221 In one (thought activity), distinctly contradictory effects may exist simultaneously. Ordinarily it is said that "Ghee burns" (although it is the heat transmitted in the ghee which burns and not the ghee itself). Similarly, it is so here, from the practical point of view.

222 This path of salvation, known as Right Belief, Knowledge and Conduct combined, has a Real and a Practical aspect; it leads the soul to the highest Stage.

223 Ever free from (Karmic) contact, free from obstruction, fully absorbed in one's own self, the Highest supremely pure Soul is effulgent, like the sky, in the Highest Stage.

224 Quite contented, all knowable being reflected in Him, immersed in supreme Bliss, the embodiment of knowledge, the Paramatma is eternally Happy in the Highest Stage.

225 Like a milk made, drawing one (end) of the rope and loosening the other, Jaina Philosophy deals with the reality of things and succeeds in (acquiring) the Essence.

226 Words have been made by various alphabets, phrases have been made by words. This sacred treatise has been made phrases; and not by us.

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