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A Treatise On Jainism
                                                            By - Shri Jayatilal S. Sanghvi

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THE SEVEN TATVAS (PRINCIPLES)

The Tatvas or the Principles are seven: (1) Jiva, soul, (2) Ajiva, non-soul, (3) Asrava, inflow, (4) Bandh, bondage, (5) Samvara, the check of inflow, (6) Nirjara, the shedding of previously bound up karmas, (7) Moksha, liberation from all karmic contact.

I & II. Jiva & Ajiva. 

All that exists is included in one or other of the two principles, soul and non-soul. While a man is alive, it is the soul in his body which perceives and knows all objects. A body without soul is incapable of perceiving or knowing anything. Material objects such as a pen, table or chair cannot feel or know anything. They are unconscious or inanimate substances. The soul is the only conscious substance. Looked at from the real point of view even a mundane i.e. embodied soul is pure, peaceful, all knowing and all blissful. It is potentially so. From the practical point of view such a soul experiences various kinds of pain and pleasure in different conditions of life. The universe teems with infinite living forms. How to observe, analyse, and classify them? This may be done in three different ways:

(1) Soul-classes (Jiva Samasa). There are obvious differences of body, sense and mind in different classes of souls. The body is primarily the basis of this classification. This in Jainism is technically called soul classes (Jiva Samasa).

(2) Soul-quest (Margana). It comprises other inner differences in species, sex, passion, knowledge, conation, etc. In soul quest, the embodied condition of the soul, i.e. the mixed living and non-living condition, is primarily the basis.

(3) Spiritual Stages (Gunasthan). They concern the purely-inner progress of the soul. In these spiritual stages, the progress of the soul from iguorance and delusion to perfect self-absorption is traced.

Soul-classes (Jiva Samasa). From the protoplasm of the germ-cell to a full blown human-being, there is an infinite number of mundane souls or living beings in the universe. The protoplasm so far as is known at present has no ears to hear, no eyes to see, no nose; to smell, no tongue to taste, it has only the sense of touch. The human being has all the five senses fully developed and distinct, and a mind also which is also a sort of additional and higher sense (a quasi-sense), the organ of which sense is invisibie to us. In Jainism, it is an organ which is made up of subtle matter called Manovargana or mental matter and its form is like a lotus with eight petals near the heart. We can divide mundane souls into six classes.

(1) With the sense of touch only (2) With touch and taste (3) With touch, taste and smell (4) With touch, taste, smell, and sight (5) With touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing (6) With touch, taste, smell, sight, hearing, and mind

One-sensed souls cannot be known by our senses. They can penetrate all matter. They are everywhere in the universe. They are not obstructed by, and they do not obstruct others. They die their own death.

Some of the above seven kinds are born with the capacity to develop, others die before acquiring the capacjty to develop. Each one of the seven may, therefore, be developable or non-developable. Thus, there may be said to be fourteen soul-classes in all. A further distinction can be considered. Some mundane souls can voluntarily change their place in space; others cannot. Observation will show that all one-sensed souls are immobile and that all the other souls are mobile. There are 406 soul classes of mundane souls as under:

(1) Sub-human, one to four-sensed - 81 One-sensed in earth, water, fire, air, vegetable, trunk, creeper, plant, tree, root.

(2) Sub-human, five-sensed - 42 In work region, highest, middle, lowest enjoyment regions.

(3) Human, five-sensed - 13 In work region Arva Khanda and Mlichha Khanda. In highest, middle, lowest and distorted enjoyment regions.

(4) Celestial, five-sensed - 172 In 1st to l6th Heaven, 9 Graiveyaka, 9 Anudisha, 6 Anuttara.

5) Hellish, five-sensed - 98 In 1st to 7th Hell

Total Soul classes 406 Soul quests (Marganas). 

There are 14 soul quests as under:

1) Gati. Conditions of existence are 4: human, sub-human, hellish and celestial. Margana is a condition in which a mundane soul is necessarily found. There are four such sets, of existence.

(2) Indriya. Senses are 5: touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing.

(3) Kaya. Body is of 6 kinds: earth, water, fire, air, vegetable (all immobile) and mobile bodies.

(4) Yoga. Soul's vibrations are of 15 kinds:

1 - 8 are mind and speech vibrations, each being true, false, mixed true and false, and neutral i.e, neither true nor false;

9 - 15 are body vibratious.

9 - Body vibration physical. 10 - Body vibration physical mixed with karmic. 11 - Body vibration fluid. 12 - Body vibration fluid mixed with karmic. 13 - Body vibration assimilative. 14 - Body vibration assimilative mixed with physical. 15 - Body vibration karmic.

(5) Veda. Sex is of 3 kinds: masculine, feminine, common.

(6) Kashaya. Passions are of 4 kinds: anger, pride, deceit, greed.

(7) Jnana. Knowledge is of 8 kinds: sensitive, scriptural, visual, mental, perfect and wrong sensitive, wrong scriptural, wrong visual.

(8) Samyam. Restraint is of 7 kinds: equanimity, recovery of equaninity after downfall, pure and absolute non-injury, slightest delusion, passionless, partial control, non-control.

(9) Darshana. Conation is of 4 kinds: occular, non-occular, visual, perfect. 

(10) Leshya. Thought paint is of 6 kinds: black, blue, dove-gray, yellow, pink, white. 

(11) Bhavya. It is of 2 kinds: capacity or incapacity of being liberated. 

(12) Samyaktva. Right Belief is of 6 kinds: subsidential, destructive, destructive-subsidential, wrong-belief, downfall, mixed right and wrong belief. 

(13) Sanjna. It is of 2 kinds: rational and irrational. 

(14) Akaraka. It is of 2 kinds: Taking or not taking, no karmas or assimilative matter.

All these divisions of soul quests are marked out with reference to the results of the operation of different karmas. The pure soul has perfect knowledge, perfect conation, right belief, and pure right conduct. These have no reference to any operation of karmas. The pure soul is free from all these distinctions of soul quests.

Spiritual Stages (Gunasthana). These are dealt with in a separate chapter.

The non-soul comprises the other five real and independent substances mentioned below, which, taken together with the soul, make up the six substances (Dravyas) described previously.

(1) Pudgala, matter is the most prominent, and plays a very important part in the amphitheatre of the universe. The special attribute of matter-substance (Pudgala) are touch, taste, smell, and colour. It exists either in the form of atoms or of molecules. Only gross molecules are cognizable by the senses; fine, electric and karmic molecules which compose the electric and the karmic bodies of all mundane souls are not cognizable by the senses. (

2) Dharma Dravya, medium of motion is a single, immaterial substance, pervading throughout the whole of the universe. It is essentially an auxiliary cause of motion for soul and matter. 

(3) Adharma Dravya, medium of rest is also a single, immaterial substance, pervading throughout the whole universe. It is also an essentially auxiliary cause of rest for soul and matter. 

(4) Akasha Dravya, space is a single infinite immaterial substance. Its function is to give place to all substances. 

(5) Kala Dravya, time is an immaterial substance. It is an auxiliary camse of bringing about modifications in all substances.

III & IV. Asrava and Bandha.

The most important combination of soul and matter is our body. It is also manifest that this body is constantly changing, in virtue of our activity of mind, speech and body.

A feeling of modesty in the mind of the maiden paints her cheeks with blush. A sad thought gives one a long face. Criminal broodings breed a criminal look in a man or woman. The pious chanting of a hymn or prayer gilds one with the calm detachment and glory of the halo of a priest or devotee. Our food, dress, play and work, all bring about constant changes in the body. Matter attracts matter. Generally the law of nature is "like to like". The matter of bad thoughts attracts matter of bad thought, and ultimately becomes the father of a bad habit. This attraction of good or bad matter by the soul in virtue of its mental, vocal, or bodily activity, is called infow (Asrava).

Every mundane soul has a karmic body, formed of karmic molecules. The universe is full of karmic molecules. Inflow of these molecules towards the soul, caused by its ows vibratory activities, through mind, speech, and body, is the third principle Asrava.

The mundane inflow is of 39 kinds, according to its causes: 5 caused by the activity of the 5 senses, 4 caused by the activity of the 4 passions, 5 caused by the activity of the 5 sins: injury, lies, theft, unchastity, and worldly attachment, 25 caused by 25 kinds of activities which are the effects of the 14 causes, viz., 5 senses, 4 passions, and 5 sins of vowlessness.

When these molecules are so attracted towards the soul, they are assimilated in the existing karmic body. The causes of assimilation or bondage are the soul's vibratory activities and passions. This process is known as Bandha (bondage) the fourth principle. The process of inflow and bondage of karmic matter go on simultaneously.

The main auxiliary causes of both of them are: (a) wrong belief (Mithyatva), (b) vowlessness (Avirati), (c) passions (Kashaya), and (d) soul's vibratory activities of mind, speech and body (Yoga).

If the vibratory activity is with passion, the inflow leads to bondage of soul by karmic matter. It is called Samparayika or mundane inflow.

If it is without passion, i.e. purely vibratory in the llth, l2th and 13th spiritual stages and does not lead to bondage it is called Iryapatha or transient or fleeting inflow.

The causes of inflow of the eight karmas are as under: 

1 & 2. Knowledge and conation-obscuring karmas.

The inflow of knowledge and conation obscuring karmic matter is caused by the following: (1) Depreciation of those who are learned in the scriptures. (2) Concealment of knowledge. (3) Envy, jealousy, refusal to impart knowledge out of envy. (4) Obstruction. Hindering the progress of knowledge. (5) Denying the truth, proclaimed by another, by body and speech. (6) Refuting the truth, although it is known, to be such.

3. Feeling Karma, Vedaniya Karma. The inflow of pain bringing feeling (Asata Vedaniya) karmic matter is due, to the following feelings and acts: (1) Dukha, pain (2) Shoka, sorrow, (3) Tapa, repentence, remorse (4) Akrandana, weeping (5) Badha, depriving of vitality (6) Paridevana, piteous or pathetic moaning to attract conpassion.

These 6 can be produced in one's own self, in another, or both in one's self and another. Thus, there are 18 forms of this inflow.

The following are the causes of inflow of pleasure bearing feeling (Sata Vedaniya) karmic matter: (1) Bhuta anukampa, compassion for all living beings (2) Vraty anukampa, compassion for the vowers (3) Dana, charity (4) Saraga samyam, self-control with slight attachment (5) Samyam asamyam, restraint by vows of some, but not of others (6) Akama nirjara, equanimous submission to the fruition of karma (7) Bala tapa, austerities not based upon right knowledge (8) Yoga, contemplation (9) Kshanti, forgiveness (10) Shauch, contentment

4. Deluding Karma, Mohaniya Karma.

The inflow of Darshana Mohaniya, right belief deluding karmic matter is caused by Avarnavada, defaming the Omsiscient Lord, Arhat Kevali; the Scriptures Shruta; the Saint's brotherhood, Sangha; the true relegion, Dharma; and the celestial beings, Deva, e.g. saying that the celestial beings take meat or wine, etc. and to offer these as sacrifices to them. 

The inflow of Charitra Mohaniya, right conduct deluding karmic matter is caused by the intense thought activity produced by the rise of the passions and of the quasi passions, no-kashaya, e.g. joking about truth, etc., disinclination to take vows, etc., including in evil society, etc.

5. Age, Ayu Karma. 

The inflow of Narakayu, Hellish Age Karma is caused by too much worldly activity and by attachment to too many wordly objects or by too much attachment e.g. committing breaches of the first five vows of non-killing, truth, non-stealing, chastity, non-attachment to worldly possessions. The point to be noted is that it is not the possession or ownership of worldly wealth which is sinful but it is the attachment to it which is a sin. A man may be in the world; but he must not be of it.

The infow of Tiryancha-ayu, Sub-human Age Karma is caused by Maya, deceit, e.g, cheating others, preaching the false doctrines, etc.

The infow of Manushya-ayu, Human Age Karma is caused by slight worldly activity and by attachment to a few wordly objects or by slight attachment. Natural humble disposition is also the cause of Human Age Karma.

Vowlessness and sub-vowlessness with slight worldly activity and slight attachment are causes of the inflow of all kinds of Age Karmas. Not taking the vows of laymen and not adopting the restrictions (Shila) but having slight attachment to the world and activity in it, can be the cause of the infow of Age-karmic matter of all four kinds.

The inflow of Deva Ayu, Celestial Age Karma is caused by the following: (1) Saraga Samyam, self-coutrol with slight attachment found in monks only. (2) Samyam Asamyam, restraint of some vows, but not of others, found in laymen only. (3) Akama Nirjara, equanimous submission to the fruition of karma. (4) Bala Tapa, austerities not based upon right-knowledge.

Right belief is also the cause of Celestial Age Karma, but only of the heavenly order. It applies to human and sub-human beings only. A celestial or hellish right believer binds the human age karma. Note also that if a human or sub-human being has bound a particular Age Karma before gaining right belief, he must enjoy that.

6. Body making, Nama Karma. 

The inflow of Ashubha Nama, a bad body making karma is caused by a non-straightforward or deceitful working of the mind, body or speech or by Visamvada, wrangling, etc., wrong belief, envy, back-biting, self-praise, censuring others, etc.

The inflow of Shubha-Nama, a good body making karma is caused by the causes which are opposite of the above viz. by straightforward dealings with body, mind and speech; by avoiding disputes, etc., right belief, humility, admiring praiseworthy people, etc.

The inflow of Tirthankara body making karma is caused by meditation (Bhavana) of the following 16 matters:

(1) Darshana Vishuddhi, purity of right belief. Pure right belief is with 8 Angas or the following 8 qualities:

(a) Nisshankita. Free from all doubt. (b) Nishkankshita. Free from worldly desire. (c) Nirvichikitsita. Free from repulsion from anything. (d) Amudbadrishtitva. Free from superstitious belief. (e) Upa-brimhana or more popularly, Upa-guhana. Advancement in one's own attributes. Free from a tendency to proclaim the faiths of others. (f) Sthiti-karana. To help oneself or others to remain steady in the path of truth. (g) Vatsalya. Tender affection for one's brother on the path of liberation. (h) Prabhavana. Propagation of the path of liberation.

(2) Vinaya sampannata. Reverence for means of liberation and for those who follow them.

(3) Shila vrateshnanatichara. Faultless observance of the 5 vows, and faultless subdual of the passions.

(4) Abhikshna jnanopayoga. Ceaseless pursuit of right-knowledge.

(5) Samvega. Perpetual apprehension of mundane miseries.

(6) Shaktitas tyaga. Giving to others, gift of knowledge, food, medicine etc., according to one's capacity.

(7) Shaktitas-tapa. The practice of austerities, according to one's capacity.

(8) Sadhu samadhi. Protecting and reassuring to saints or removing their troubles. 

(9) Vaiyavrittya karana. Serving the meritorious. 

(10) Arhat bhakti. Devotion to Arhats or Omniscient Lords. 

(11) Acharya bhakti. Devotion to Acharyas or heads of the orders of saints. 

(12) Bahu shruta bhakti. Devotion to Upadhyayas or teaching saints. 

(13) Pravachana bhakti. Devotion to Scriptures. 

(14) Avashyaka parihari. Not neglecting one's six important daily duties. 

(15) Marga prabhavana. Propagation of the Path of Liberation. 

(16) Pravachana vatsalatva. Tender affection for one's brothers on the Path of Liberation.

Even one of these, if properly contemplated and with right belief, brings about the inflow of Tirthankara body making karma.

7. Family determining, Gotra Karma.

The inflow of low family determining karma is caused by the following: (1) Paraninda, speaking ill of others. (2) Atma prashansa, praising oneself. (3) Sadgunochchhadana, concealing the good qualities of others. (4) Asad guna udbhavana, proclaiming in oneself the good qualities which one does not possess.

The inflow of high family determining karma is caused by the opposites of the above i.e.:(1) Para prashansa, praising others. (2) Atma ninda, denouncing oneself. (3) Parsad gunandbhanana, proclaiming the good qualities of others. (4) Atmasad guna uchchhadana, not proclaiming one's own good qualities. (5) Nichaih Vritti, an attitude of humility towards one's betters. (6) Anutseka, not being proud of one's own achievements or attainments.

8. Obstructive, Antraya Karma.

The inflow of Antaraya Karma is caused: by disturbing others in charity, gain, enjoyment of consumable things, enjoyment of non-consumable things, and making use of their powers.

Note that the inflow of 7 Karmas, i.e. of all except the age karma, is going on always in souls influenced by the passions, and of the age karma also on special occasions; but the predominance of the above causes will determine the intensity of fruition (anubhaga) of their particular inflow.

The special occasions of Age Karma are eight in one man's life, as follows:

Suppose a man's life is to be 81 years long. The first occasion for binding the age karma will be on his passing 2/3 of it, i.e. when he is 54. The second on his passing 2/3 of the remainder i.e. when he is 72. The third on his passing 2/3 of the remainder, i.e. when he is 78. The fourth on his passing 2/3 of the remainder, i.e. when he is 80. Similarly the fifth when he is 80 years, 8 months. The sixth is at 80 years, 10 months and 20 days. The seventh at 80 years, 11 months, 16 days and 16 hours. The eighth at 80 years, 11 months, 25 days, 13 hours, and 20 minutes. If no age karma is bound yet, the ninth is the last antar muhurta of his life. The point is that the man is born with his particular age karma already bound. Therefore, he must bind the age karma of his next incarnation at the latest at the last moment.

(1) Wrong Belief. It is of 5 kinds: (a) Ekanta. Taking only one aspect of a many sided thing. (b) Viparita. Perverse belief, e.g. animal sacrifices lead to heaven. Injury to auyone cannot be a cause of merit. (c) Samshaya. Doubt, scepticism, hesitation, e.g. as to Path of Liberation. (d) Vinaya. Veneration. Taking all religions and Gods, even the so-called religions which enjoin cruel or immoral practices, to be equally worthy of pursuit. (e) Ajnana. Wrong belief caused by ignorance. Indiscrimination of good and bad. Wrong belief is caused by Nisarga, inborn error; or by Adhigama, preaching of another.

(2) Avirata. Vowlessness, Non-renunciation is of 12 kinds: Lack of compassion for 6 classes of embodied souls; and lack of restraint of 5 senses and 1 mind.

(3) Pramada. Carelessness is of 15 kinds: (1) Food (bhojana katha) (2) Women (stri katha) (3) Politics (rajya katha) (4) Scandal (desha katha) (5-9) Senses (10-13) Passions (14) Affection (15) Sleep

(4) Kashaya. Passions are four: anger, pride, deceit and greed.

(5) Yoga. Vibrations in the soul, through mind, speech and body, are of 15 kinds:

Mind: (1) Satya mana, true mind. (2) Asatya mana, false mind. (3) Ubhaya mana, mixed true and false mind. (4) Anubhaya mana, neither true nor false. 

Speech: (1) Satya Vachana, true. (2) Asatya Vachana, false. (3) Ubhaya Vachana, both. (4) Anubhaya Vachana, none. 

Body: (1) Audarika, physical. (2) Audarika mishra, i,e. physical with karmic. (3) Vakriyika, fluid. (4) Vakriyika mishra, Fluid with karmic. (5) Aharaka, Assimilative. (6) Aharaka mishra, i.e. Assimilative with physical. (7) Karmana, Karmic.

Note that the Taijasa, Electric Body, is always found with the Karmic Body. It never has an independent yoga. The electric molecules are drawn like the karmic molecules by the vibrations set in the soul by yoga of any kind.

Karmic matter is bound to the soul by the vibrations (yoga) of mind, speech and body, coloured by passions (Kashaya) of anger, pride, deceit, and greed mainly. The vibrations determine the kind (Prakriti) and the quantity (Pradesha) of the Karmic matter to be drawn towards and bound to the soul. The passions determine the duration (Sthiti) of the bondage and the mind or intense fruition (Anubhaga) of the karma at its maturity.

Kinds of Bondage: There are eight kinds of Prakritis of Karmic matter and 148 sub-classes as already mentioned in Chapter II.

The Quantity of Bondage. As to Pradesha, accoiding to the nature caused by their names from all around, due to the differences is the vibrations (yoga) in the soul-activty, not perceptible by the senses, the karmic molecules enter and become one and stay with every Pradesha of the soul. They come in infinite numbers, every moment, to each soul. The particular number of the molecules actually absorbed is called Pradesha-bandha.

Duration of Bondage. The maximum durations are as under: Knowledge and Conation obscuring karmas, Feeling Karmas and Obstructive karmas 30 crore x crore Sagaras. This is possible in a rational five sensed, fully developable (Paryapta) soul, who has wrong belief (Mithyatva). Deluding Karma: 70 crore x crore Sagaras.

Nama and Gotra Karmas: 33 crore x crore Sagaras for each. This is also possible as above. Ayu, Age Karma: 33 Sagaras.

The minimum durations are as under: Feeling Karma: 12 Muhurtas = 12 x 48 minutes = 12 x 48/60 = 48/5 = 9hours, 36 minutes.

Gotra Karma: 8 Muhurtas. Nama Karma: 8 Muhurtas. Knowledge obscuring Karma Conation obscuring Karma Obstructive obscuring Karma Deluding obscuring Karma One Antar-muhurta which ranges from 1 Samaya and 1 Ava1i at the lowest to 48 minutes minus one Samaya.

Fruition of Karma. It is according to the name of the karma, e.g. knowledge obscuring karma prevents the acquisition of knowledge and so on.

V. Samvara. Checking of inflow and bondage of karmic molecules is called Samvara (stoppage). The main auxiliary causes of stopping the inflow and bondage of karmic molecules are: (a) right belief, (b) observance of vows, (c) passionlessness, and (d) restraint of soul's vibratory activities.

The causes of inflow and bondage are given above. 

Wrong belief (Mithya Darshan) is stopped (Samvara) in the 4th Spiritual Stage (guuasthana), vowlessness (Avirata) in the 5th and 6th, carelessness (Pramada) in the 7th, passion (Kashaya) in the 8th, 9th and 10th, vibration (Yoga) in the 14th Stage.

Samvara or Stoppage of Inflow is produced by the following: (A) 3 kinds of Gupti, preservation. (B) 5 kinds of Samiti, carefulness. (C) 10 kinds of Dharma, observances. (D) 12 kinds of Anupreksha, meditation. (E) 22 kinds of Parishaha Jaya, subdual of sufferings. (F) 5 kinds of Charitra, conduct.

By austerities is caused the shedding of karmic matter, and also stoppage of inflow.

(A) 3 preservations, Gupti, proper control (Nigraha) over (1) mind, (2) speech, and (3) body.

(B) 5 carefulness. (1) Samyak Irya Samiti, Proper care in walking. (2) Samyak Bhasha Samiti, Proper care in speaking. (3) Samyak Eshna Samiti, Proper care in eating. (4) Samyak Adana Nikshepa Samiti, Proper care in lifting and laying. (5) Samyak Utsarga Samiti, Proper care in excreting.

(C) 10 observances: (1) Uttama kshama, supreme forgiveness. (2) Uttama mardava, supreme humility. (3) Uttama arjava, supreme straight forwardness (Honesty). (4) Uttama shaucha, supreme contentment. (5) Uttama satya, supreme truth. (6) Uttama samyama, supreme restraint. (7) Uttama tapa, supreme austerities. (8) Uttama tyaga, supreme renunciation. (9) Uttama akinchanya, supreme non-attachment, not taking the non-self for one's own self. (10) Uttama brahmacharya, supreme chastity.

(D) 12 Meditations: (1) Anitya Anupreksha, Everything is subject; to change or transitory but note that as substance everything is permanent. Only condition is transitory. (2) Asharana Auupreksha. Unprotectiveness, helplessness. The soul is unprotected from the fruition of karmas, death, pain, pleasure success, failure are the necessary, results of our acts in this or past lives. (3) Samsara Anupreksha, Mundaneness, soul, moves in the cycle of existences and cannot attain true happiness till he is out of it. (4) Ekatva Anupreksha. Loneliness, I am alone the doer of my actions and the enjoyer of the fruits of them. (5) Anyatva Anupreksha. Separateness, otherness. The world, my relatives and friends, my body and mind, they are all distinct and separate from my real self. (6) Ashuchi Anupreksha. Impurity, the body is impure and dirty. Purity is of 2 kinds: of the Soul itself; and of the body and other things. This last is of 8 kinds. (7) Ashrava Anupreksha, Inflow. The inflow of Karma is the cause of my mundane existence and it is the product of passions, etc. (8) Samvara Anupreksha, Stoppage. The inflow must be stopped. (9) Nirjara Anupreksha, Shedding. Karmic matter must be shed from or shaken out of the soul. (10) Loka Anupreksha, Universe. The nature of the Universe and its constituent elements in all their vast variety proving the insignificance and miserable nothingness of man in time and space. (11) Bodhi Durlabha Asupreksha. Rarity of Right Path. It is diffcult to attain right belief, knowledge and conduct. (12) Dharma svakhya tattva Anupreksha. Nature of Right Path as said by the Conquerors. The true nature of Truth, i.e., the three fold path to real Liberation. These must be meditated again and again.

E) 22 Sufferings. For the sake of non-falling-off from the Path of Liberation, and for the shedding of karmic matter, whatever sufferings are undergone calmly and with religious renunciation are called the Sufferings (Parishaha). They are: (1) Hunger (2) Thirst (3) Cold (4) Heat (5) Troubles from insect-bites, mosquitoes, etc. (6) Nakedness, To bear calmly the troubles of climate, unpopularity, etc., due to the vow of absolute possessionlessness, i.e. nakedness (7) Ennui, dissatisfaction, languor (8) Women. Resisting temptations from and desire for women (9) Walking too much, not to feel the fatigue, but to bear it calmly (10) Continuous sitting in one posture, not to disturb the posture of meditation, even if there is danger from lion, snakes, etc. (11) Sleeping, resting on the hard earth (12) Abuse (13) Beating (14) Begging. To resist the temptation of begging even when there is great need of protection of body, mind, etc. (15) Failure to get alms (16) Disease (17) Contact with thorny shrubs, etc. (18) Dirt. Discomfort from dust, etc. (19) Respect or disrespect by admirers or enemies (20) To resist conceit of knowledge and to be full of humility (21) Lack of knowledge. Not to be pained, even though it is felt that one does not know much (22) Slack belief, e.g., on failure to attain supernatural powers, even after great piety and austerities to begin to doubt the truth of Jainism and its teachings.

(F) 5 Charitras. They are: (1) Eqnanimity (2) Recovery of equalimity after a fall from it (3) Pure and absolute non-injury (4) All but entire freedom from passion (5) Ideal and passionless conduct (Parihar Vishuddhi)

VI. Nirjara. 

The shedding of karmas already bound with a soul, at maturity, or prematurely, is called Nirjara. The premature shedding of karmas is caused by pure thought activities, brought about by the practice of right kind of austerities. The shedding on maturity is a natural and automatic process. But it is a long process. Therefore a shorter method is adopted; deliberate activity may hasten the ripening of a karma and the shedding of its matter.

To illustrate, we wish evil to our neighbour A : the thought activity invites the karmic matter into the soul (ashrava), the matter comes and binds the soul (bandha). This karma may take two months to bear its full fruits; in the meantime it is an evil load for the soul. To get lightness and to get rid of the karma, the soul may deliberately feel an opposite kind of feeling towards other neighbours B, C, and D, or towards A himself. A still surer way is to practise austerity. By removing the mind from the demands and impulses of the body, and by mortifying the physical man through not listening to its greed and temptations, matter may be overcome and the soul freed from the bondage.

The natural maturing of a Karma and its separation from the soul is called Savipaka Nirjara. Inducing a karma to leave the soul by means of a contrary karma, or by means of ascetic practices, is called Avipaka Nirjara (Riddance without fruition).

The causes of stopping of inflow of karmic matter given previously are also causes of the shedding of the karmas already bound to the soul. In addition to these, austerities (tapa) also cause the shedding before its time. Tapa, austerities are external and internal.

External austerities are six: (1) Anashana, Fasting. (2) Avamodarya, Eating less than one's fill, or less than one has appetite for. (3) Vritti parisankhyana, Taking a mental vow to accept food from a house-holder, only if a certain condition is fulfilled, without letting anyone know about the vow. (4) Rasa parityaga, Daily renunciation of one or more of 6 kinds of delicacies: ghee (butter, clarified butter), milk, curd, sugar, salt, oil. (5) Vivikta shayyasana, sitting and sleeping in a lonely place, devoid of animate beings. (6) Kaya-Klesha, Mortification of the body, so long as the mind is not disturbed.

Internal austerities are also six: (1) Prayashchitta, Expiation. (2) Vinava, Reverence. (3) Vaiyavritya, Service of the saints or worthy people. (4) Swadhyaya, Study. (5) Vyutsarga, Giving up attachment to the body, etc. (6) Dhyana, Concentration.

VII. Moksha,

Liberatiom is freedom from all karmic matter as a result of the non-existence of the cause of bondage and the shedding off of all karmas previously bound. The total separation of soul from the bondage of all karmic matter is liberation (Moksha). It is the state of a Siddha, the condition of perfection. Continuous devotion to Apta (own soul), study of the scriptures, and meditation of the seven principles, cause the subsidence of wrong belief (Mithyatva) and of the four error feeding passions (Anantanubandhi Kashaya) and as a cousequence the real Right Belief, which is an attribute of the soul, shines forth in its true splendour. At this stage the Right Believer is fully convinced of the true amd pure nature of his own soul, and this is Real Right Belief.

Punya (merit) and Papa (demerit):

Two more are added to the above said seven principles. These are Punya (merit) and Papa (demerit). Know good karmas as merit and bad karmas as demerit. Non-self, whether merit or demerit, is not conducive to the freedom of the soul. People generally love merit and hate demerit, because the latter brings pain and the former pleasure. Really pleasure also is not beneficial, because a mundane soul indulging in sense pleasures remains aloof from the path of spiritual purity. Every gratification of sense pleasure creates desire for further gratification. For obtaining such gratifications one has to employ means, which may be fair or foul, and, he inevitably binds bad karmas. He goes on sinking deeper and deeper in the mire and his chances of extricating himself become lesser and lesser. A wise man should wean himself away from both merit and demerit, and concentrate all attention to contemplation of pure soul. From the practical point of view, people prefer merit to demerit, and therefore, engage themselves in such acts and thoughts as bring in merit for the following reasons:

(1) Cause of bondage of each is different; good thoughts bring merit (Punya), and bad thoughts demerit (Papa). (2) Nature of each is different. Good karmas are pleasure bearing feeling karma, high family, good body-making, good age karma classes; while bad karma are pain bearing feeling karma, low family, bad body-making, bad age karma, and the four destructive karmas, knowledge obscuring, conation obscuring, delusion and obstructive karmas. (3) Fruition of each is different. Merit (Punya) result in pleasure and demerit (Papa) in pain. (4) The result in each is different. Merit (Punya) leads on to the Path of Liberation ultimately and demerit (Papa) to the path of bondage.

From the real point of view, however, both merit and demerit lead the soul further into the vortex of transmigration because: (1) Both are caused by impure thought activity of the soul (2) Both have got material karmic nature (3) Fruition of both is harmful to real happiness of soul (4) Both lead towards the path of bondage.

Passionate thought activity and soul vibration cause inflow and bondage of karma, good or bad. Both are bondages, hindering the purity and freedom of soul. Merit bondage is like fetters made of gold and the demerit bondage is like iron fetters, causing the soul to wander in the cycle of existences because fruits of good or bad karmas have to be enjoyed. A wise Right Believer should, therefore, see that merit and demerit both are derogatory to the Path of Liberation, and true peace and happiness. Thus he should have regard and liking only for self-absorption, based on Right Belief, Right Knowledge and Right conduct of Soul in its own true nature, as the true Path of Liberation. Although in the lower Spiritual Stages, when long-continued self-absorption is not possible, one is obliged to take resort to good deeds, such as, worship of Arhats and Saints, devotion to and services of the Acharyas, charity, and study of scriptures in order to keep away Pramada or lines of thoughts and deeds not beneficial for soul advancement. Such good deeds are performed with the object of self improvement and not for the gratification of sense desire. There is, however, a constant effort for attaining the high status of self-absorption.

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